Digital Economy and Society Index
The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) is a composite index that summarises some 30 relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States, across five main dimensions: Connectivity, Human Capital, Use of Internet, Integration of Digital Technology, Digital Public Services. Read reports and methodological notes.
The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.
Indicator  Definition and scope  Time coverage  Explore more using SPARQL queries  Source 

DESI Overall Index  
Digital Economy and Society Index 
Notation: DESI
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions: 1 Connectivity (25%), 2 Human Capital (25%), 3 Use of Internet (15%), 4 Integration of Digital Technology (20%) and 5 Digital Public Services (15%). 
2014  2016 
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DESI Dimensions  
1 Connectivity 
Notation: DESI_1_CONN
Definition: DESI Connectivity Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the four subdimensions: 1a Fixed Broadband (33%), 1b Mobile Broadband (22%), 1c Speed (33%), 1d Affordability (11%). 
2014  2016 
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2 Human Capital 
Notation: DESI_2_HC
Definition: DESI Human Capital Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two subdimensions: 2a Basic Skills and Usage (50%), 2b Advanced skills and Development (50%) 
2014  2016 
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3 Use of Internet 
Notation: DESI_3_UI
Definition: DESI Use of Internet Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three subdimensions: 3a Content (33%), 3b Communication (33%), 3c Transactions (33%) 
2014  2016 
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4 Integration of Digital Technology 
Notation: DESI_4_IDT
Definition: DESI Integration of Digital Technology Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two subdimensions: 4a Business digitization (60%), 4b eCommerce (40%) 
2014  2016 
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5 Digital Public Services 
Notation: DESI_5_DPS
Definition: DESI Digital Public Services Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two subdimensions: 5a eGovernment (67%), 5b eHealth (33%) 
2014  2016 
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DESI Subdimensions  
1a Fixed Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1A_FBB
Definition: DESI Fixed Broadband subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1a1 Fixed BB Coverage (50%), 1a2 Fixed BB Takeup (50%) 
2014  2016 
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1b Mobile Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1B_MBB
Definition: DESI Mobile Broadband subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1b1 Mobile BB Takeup (50%), 1b2 Spectrum (50%) 
2014  2016 
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1c Speed 
Notation: DESI_1C_SPEED
Definition: DESI Speed subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1c1 NGA Coverage (50%), 1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB (50%) 
2014  2016 
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1d Affordability 
Notation: DESI_1D_AFF
Definition: DESI Affordability subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1d1 Fixed BB Price (100%) 
2014  2016 
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2a Basic Skills and Usage 
Notation: DESI_2A_BSU
Definition: DESI Basic Skills and Usage subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2a1 Internet Users (50%), 2a2 Basic Digital Skills (50%) 
2014  2016 
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2b Advanced skills and Development 
Notation: DESI_2B_ASD
Definition: DESI Advanced Skills and Development subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2b1 ICT Specialists (50%), 2b2 STEM Graduates (50%) 
2014  2016 
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3a Content 
Notation: DESI_3A_CONT
Definition: DESI Content subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3a1 News (25%), 3a2 Music, Videos and Games (25%), 3a3 Video on Demand (25%), 3a4 IPTV (25%) 
2014  2016 
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3b Communication 
Notation: DESI_3B_COMM
Definition: DESI Communication subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3b1 Video Calls (50%), 3b2 Social Networks (50%) 
2014  2016 
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3c Transactions 
Notation: DESI_3C_TRANS
Definition: DESI Transactions subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3c1 Banking (50%), 3c2 Shopping (50%) 
2014  2016 
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4a Business digitization 
Notation: DESI_4A_BD
Definition: DESI Business Digitisation subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4a1 Electronic Information Sharing (20%), 4a2 RFID (20%), 4a3 Social Media (20%), 4a4 eInvoices (20%), 4a5 Cloud (20%) Notes: DESI 2014 does not comprise the indicator 4a5 Cloud, the weights of the remaining indicators are adjusted at 25% each. 
2014  2016 
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4b eCommerce 
Notation: DESI_4B_ECOMM
Definition: DESI eCommerce subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4b1 SMEs Selling Online (33%), 4b2 eCommerce Turnover (33%), 4b3 Selling Online Crossborder (33%) 
2014  2016 
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5a eGovernment 
Notation: DESI_5A_EGOV
Definition: DESI eGovernment subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 5a1 eGovernment Users (25%), 5a2 Prefilled Forms (25%), 5a3 Online Service Completion (25%), 5a4 Open Data (25%) Notes: DESI 2014 does not comprise the indicator 5a4 Open Data, the weights of the remaining indicators are adjusted at 33% each. 
2014  2016 
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DESI Individual Indicators  
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1A1_FBBC
Definition: Standard fixed broadband coverage, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Point Topic Study on broadband coverage 
1a2 Fixed BB Takeup 
Notation: DESI_1A2_FBBTU
Definition: Households that have a fixed Broadband connection, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
1b1 Mobile BB Takeup 
Notation: DESI_1B1_MBBTU
Definition: Mobile broadband takeup, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Communications Committee survey 
1b2 Spectrum 
Notation: DESI_1B2_SPEC
Definition: Percentage of assigned spectrum out of the target to be harmonised at EU level, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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European Commission Services 
1c1 NGA Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1C1_NGAC
Definition: Households covered by NGA broadband, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Point Topic Study on broadband coverage 
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB 
Notation: DESI_1C2_SFBB
Definition: Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 30 Mbps, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Communications Committee survey 
1d1 Fixed BB Price 
Notation: DESI_1D1_FBBP
Definition: Monthly cost of the least expensive fixed broadband subscription with speed of 12 to 30 Mbps, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Broadband Internet Access Cost (BIAC) annual studies 
2a1 Internet Users 
Notation: DESI_2A1_IU
Definition: Individuals whose frequency of Internet access is at least once a week, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
2a2 Basic Digital Skills 
Notation: DESI_2A2_BDS
Definition: Individuals with basic or above basic digital skills, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2016  2016 
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Pilot of new Digital Skills Indicators 
2b1 ICT Specialists 
Notation: DESI_2B1_ICTSPEC
Definition: Persons Employed with ICT Specialist Skills, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  Labour force survey 
2b2 STEM Graduates 
Notation: DESI_2B2_STEMG
Definition: Science and technology graduates, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat education statistics 
3a1 News 
Notation: DESI_3A1_NEWS
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to read online news sites, newspapers or news magazines, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3a2 Music, Videos and Games 
Notation: DESI_3A2_MVG
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to play or download games, images, films or music, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3a3 Video on Demand 
Notation: DESI_3A3_VOD
Definition: Percentage of households subcribing to any form of Video on Demand, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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IHS TV Media Intelligence 
3b1 Video Calls 
Notation: DESI_3B1_VIDCALL
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to make telephone or video calls, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3b2 Social Networks 
Notation: DESI_3B2_SOCNET
Definition: Individuals used the Internet to participate in social networks (create user profile, post messages or other contributions to facebook, twitter, etc.), normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3c1 Banking 
Notation: DESI_3C1_BANK
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to use online banking, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3c2 Shopping 
Notation: DESI_3C2_SHOP
Definition: Individuals who ordered goods or services online, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing 
Notation: DESI_4A1_EIS
Definition: Enterprises who have ERP software package to share information between different functional areas, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a2 RFID 
Notation: DESI_4A2_RFID
Definition: Enterprises using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies for after sales product identification or as part of the production and service delivery, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a3 Social Media 
Notation: DESI_4A3_SOCMED
Definition: Enterprises that use two or more types of social media, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a4 eInvoices 
Notation: DESI_4A4_EINV
Definition: Enterprises sending einvoices suitable for automatic processing, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a5 Cloud 
Notation: DESI_4A5_CLOUD
Definition: Buy Cloud Computing services of mediumhigh sophistication, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2015  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b1 SMEs Selling Online 
Notation: DESI_4B1_SMESO
Definition: Enterprises selling online (at least 1% of turnover), normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b2 eCommerce Turnover 
Notation: DESI_4B2_ECOMTURN
Definition: Enterprises' total turnover from ecommerce, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b3 Selling Online Crossborder 
Notation: DESI_4B3_SELLCB
Definition: Enterprises that did electronic sales to other EU countries, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
5a1 eGovernment Users 
Notation: DESI_5A1_EGOVU
Definition: Individuals sending filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, last 12 months, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
5a2 Prefilled Forms 
Notation: DESI_5A2_PREFFORM
Definition: Amount of data that is prefilled in Public Services' online forms (Authentic sources Key Enabler indicator of eGovernment benchmark), normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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eGovernment Benchmark 
5a3 Online Service Completion 
Notation: DESI_5A3_OSERCOMP
Definition: Share of the steps in a Public Service life event that can be completed online (Online availability subindicator for User centricity of the eGovernment benchmark), normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2014  2016 
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eGovernment Benchmark 
5a4 Open Data 
Notation: DESI_5A4_OPENDATA
Definition: Score in the European PSI Scoreboard measuring the status of Open Data and PSI reuse throughout the EU, normalised indicator Notes: scores normalised between 0 and 1 
2015  2016 
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ePSI Scoreboard 
DESI Overall Index  weight sliders  
Digital Economy and Society Index 
Notation: DESI_SLIDERS
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions with the weights selected by the user: 1 Connectivity, 2 Human Capital, 3 Use of Internet, 4 Integration of Digital Technology and 5 Digital Public Services. 
2014  2016 
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