The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) is a composite index that summarises relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States, across five main dimensions: Connectivity, Human Capital, Use of Internet, Integration of Digital Technology, Digital Public Services. Read reports and methodological notes.

The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.

Indicator Information
DESI Overall Index
Digital Economy and Society Index
Notation: desi
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions: 1 Connectivity (25%), 2 Human Capital (25%), 3 Use of Internet (15%), 4 Integration of Digital Technology (20%) and 5 Digital Public Services (15%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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DESI Dimensions
1 Connectivity
Notation: desi_1_conn
Definition: DESI Connectivity Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the five sub-dimensions: 1a Fixed Broadband take-up (25%), 1b Fixed broadband coverage (25%), 1c Mobile broadband (35%) and 1d Broadband price index (15%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2 Human Capital
Notation: desi_2_hc
Definition: DESI Human Capital Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two sub-dimensions: 2a Internet User Skills (50%) and 2b Advanced Skills and Development (50%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3 Use of Internet Services
Notation: desi_3_ui
Definition: DESI Use of Internet Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three sub-dimensions: 3a Internet Use (25%), 3b Activities Online (50%), 3c Transactions (25%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4 Integration of Digital Technology
Notation: desi_4_idt
Definition: DESI Integration of Digital Technology Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two sub-dimensions: 4a Business digitisation (60%) and 4b e-Commerce (40%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5 Digital Public Services
Notation: desi_5_dps
Definition: DESI Digital Public Services Dimension calculated by taking the score for 5a e-Government
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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DESI Sub-dimensions
1a Fixed broadband take-up
Notation: desi_1a_fbbtc
Definition: DESI Fixed Broadband take -up sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1a1 Overall fixed broadband take-up (50%), 1a2 At least 100 Mbps fixed broadband take-up (50%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1b Fixed broadband coverage
Notation: desi_1b_fbbc
Definition: DESI Fixed Broadband coverage sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1b1 Fast broadband (NGA) coverage (50%), Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage (50%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1c Mobile broadband
Notation: desi_1c_mbb
Definition: DESI Mobile Broadband sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1c1 4G coverage (25%), 1c2 Mobile broadband take-up (25%) and 1c3 5G readiness (50%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1d Broadband price index
Notation: desi_1d_bbpi
Definition: DESI Broadband price index sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicator: 1d1 Broadband Price Index (100%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2a Internet User Skills
Notation: desi_2a_bsu
Definition: DESI Internet User Skills sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2a1 At least Basic Digital Skills (33%), 2a2 Above basic digital skillst (33%) and 2a3 At least basic software skills (33%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2b Advanced Skills and Development
Notation: desi_2b_asd
Definition: DESI Advanced Skills and Development sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2b1 ICT Specialists (33%), 2b2 Female ICT specialists (33%) and 2b3 ICT graduates (33%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3a Internet use
Notation: desi_3a_ui
Definition: DESI Internet Use sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3a1 People who never used the internet (50%) and 3a2 Internet Users (50%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b Activities online
Notation: desi_3b_acton
Definition: DESI Activities Online sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3b1 News (16.6%), 3b2 Music, Videos and Games (16.6%), 3b3 Video on Demand (16.6%), 3b4 Video Calls (16.6%), 3b5 Social Networks (16.6%), and 3b6 Doing an online course (16.6%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3c Transactions
Notation: desi_3c_trans
Definition: DESI Transactions sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3c1 Banking (33%), 3c2 Shopping (33%) and 3c3 Selling online (33%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4a Business digitisation
Notation: desi_4a_bd
Definition: DESI Business Digitisation sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4a1 Electronic Information Sharing (16.7%), 4a2 Social media (16.7%), 4a3 Big data (33.3%) and 4a4 Cloud (33.3%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4b e-Commerce
Notation: desi_4b_ecomm
Definition: DESI e-Commerce sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4b1 SMEs Selling Online (33%), 4b2 e-Commerce Turnover (33%), 4b3 Selling Online Cross-border (33%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a e-Government
Notation: desi_5a_egov
Definition: DESI e-Government sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 5a1 e-Government Users (20%), 5a2 Pre-filled Forms (20%), 5a3 Online Service Completion (20%), 5a4 Digital public services for businesses (20%) and 5a5 Open Data (20%)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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DESI Individual Indicators
1a1 Overall fixed BB take-up
Notation: desi_1a1_fbbtc
Definition: Percentage of households subscribing to fixed broadband
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1a2 At least 100 Mbps fixed BB take-up
Notation: desi_1a2_ufbbtu
Definition: Percentage of households subscribing to fixed broadband of at least 100 Mbps, calculated as overall fixed broadband take-up
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1b1 Fast BB (NGA) coverage
Notation: desi_1b1_fbbc
Definition: Percentage of households covered by fixed broadband of at least 30 Mbps download. The technologies considered are FTTH, FTTB, Cable Docsis 3.0 and VDS
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1b2 Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage
Notation: desi_1b2_vhcnc
Definition: Percentage of households covered by any fixed VHCN. The technologies considered are FTTH and FTTB for 2015-2018 and FTTH, FTTB and Cable Docsis 3.1 for 201
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1c1 4G coverage
Notation: desi_1c1_4g
Definition: Percentage of populated areas with coverage by 4G - measured as the average coverage of telecom operators in each country
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1c2 Mobile BB take-up
Notation: desi_1c2_mbbtu
Definition: Number of mobile data subscriptions per 100 people
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1c3 5G readiness
Notation: desi_1c3_5g
Definition: The amount of spectrum assigned and ready for 5G use by the end of 2020 within the so-called 5G pioneer bands. These bands are 700 MHz (703-733 MHz and 758-788 MHz), 3.6 GHz (3400-3800 MHz) and 26 GHz (1000 MHz within 24250-27500 MHz). All three spectrum bands have an equal weight
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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1d1 Broadband price index
Notation: desi_1d1_bbpi
Definition: The broadband price index measures the prices of representative baskets of fixed, mobile and converged broadband offers
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2a1 At least Basic Digital Skills
Notation: desi_2a1_bds
Definition: People with "basic" or "above basic" digital skills in each of the following four dimensions: information, communication, problem solving and software for content creation (as measured by the number of activities carried out during the previous 3 months)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2a2 Above basic digital skills
Notation: desi_2a2_abds
Definition: People with "above basic" digital skills in each of the following four dimensions: information, communication, problem solving and software for content creation (as measured by the number of activities carried out during the previous 3 months)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2a3 At least basic software skills
Notation: desi_2a3_abss
Definition: People who, in addition to having used basic software features such as word processing, have used advanced spreadsheet functions, created a presentation or document integrating text, pictures and tables or charts, or written code in a programming language
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2b1 ICT Specialists
Notation: desi_2b1_ictspec
Definition: Employed ICT specialists. Broad definition based on the ISCO-08 classification and including jobs like ICT service managers, ICT professionals, ICT technicians, ICT installers and servicers
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2b2 Female ICT specialists
Notation: desi_2b2_fictspec
Definition: Employed ICT specialists. Broad definition based on the ISCO-08 classification and including jobs like ICT service managers, ICT professionals, ICT technicians, ICT installers and servicers
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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2b3 ICT graduates
Notation: desi_2b3_ictg
Definition: People with a degree in ICT
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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Source: Eurostat
3a1 People who never used the internet
Notation: desi_3a1_notiu
Definition: People who never used the Internet
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3a2 Internet Users
Notation: desi_3a2_iu
Definition: People who use the Internet at least once a week
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b1 News
Notation: desi_3b1_news
Definition: People who used the internet to read online news sites, newspapers or news magazines
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b2 Music, Videos and Games
Notation: desi_3b2_mvg
Definition: People who used the internet to play or download games, images, films or music
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b3 Video on Demand
Notation: desi_3b3_vod
Definition: People who used the internet to use Video on Demand services
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b4 Video Calls
Notation: desi_3b4_vidcall
Definition: People who used the internet to make telephone or video calls (e.g. Skype)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b5 Social Networks
Notation: desi_3b5_socnet
Definition: People who used the internet to participate in social networks (create user profile, post messages or other contributions)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3b6 Doing an online course
Notation: desi_3b6_courseon
Definition: People who have used the Internet for doing an online course (on any subject)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3c1 Banking
Notation: desi_3c1_bank
Definition: People who used the Internet to use online banking
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3c2 Shopping
Notation: desi_3c2_shop
Definition: People who ordered goods or services online
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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3c3 Selling online
Notation: desi_3c3_sell
Definition: People who sold goods or services online
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
Notation: desi_4a1_eis
Definition: Businesses who have in use an ERP (enterprise resource planning) software package, to share information between different functional areas (e.g. accounting, planning, production, marketing)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4a2 Social media
Notation: desi_4a2_socmed
Definition: Businesses using two or more of the following social media: social networks, enterprise's blog or microblog, multimedia content sharing websites, wiki based knowledge sharing tools. Using social media means that the enterprise have a user profile, an account or a user license depending on the requirements and the type of the social media
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4a3 Big data
Notation: desi_4a3_bigdat
Definition: Enterprises analysing big data from any data source
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4a4 Cloud
Notation: desi_4a4_cloud
Definition: Businesses purchasing at least one of the following cloud computing services: hosting of the enterprise's database, accounting software applications, CRM software, computing power
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4b1 SMEs selling online
Notation: desi_4b1_smeso
Definition: SMEs selling online (at least 1% of turnover)
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4b2 e-Commerce turnover
Notation: desi_4b2_ecomturn
Definition: SMEs total turnover from e-commerce
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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4b3 Selling online cross-border
Notation: desi_4b3_sellcb
Definition: SMEs that carried out electronic sales to other EU countries
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a1 e-Government Users
Notation: desi_5a1_egovu
Definition: People who sent filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, previous 12 months
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Notation: desi_5a2_prefform
Definition: Amount of data that is pre-filled in public services' online forms
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a3 Online Service Completion
Notation: desi_5a3_osercomp
Definition: The share of administrative steps related to major life events (birth of a child, new residence, etc) that can be done online
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a4 Digital public services for businesses
Notation: desi_5a4_psb
Definition: The indicator broadly reflects the share of public services needed for starting a business and for conducting regular business operations that are available online for domestics as well as for foreign users. Services provided through a portal receive an higher score, services which provide only information (but have to be completed offline) receive a more limited score
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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5a5 Open Data
Notation: desi_5a5_opendata
Definition: This composite indicator measures to what extent countries have an Open Data policy in place (including the transposition of the revised PSI Directive), the estimated political, social and economic impact of Open Data and the characteristics (functionalities, data availability and usage) of the national data portal
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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DESI Overall Index - weight sliders
Digital Economy and Society Index
Notation: desi_sliders
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions with the weights selected by the user: 1 Connectivity, 2 Human Capital, 3 Use of Internet, 4 Integration of Digital Technology and 5 Digital Public Services.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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