Digital Economy and Society Index

The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) is a composite index that summarises some 30 relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States, across five main dimensions: Connectivity, Human Capital, Use of Internet, Integration of Digital Technology, Digital Public Services. Read reports and methodological notes.

The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.

Indicator Definition and scope Time coverage Explore more using SPARQL queries Source
DESI Overall Index
Digital Economy and Society Index Notation: DESI
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions: 1 Connectivity (25%), 2 Human Capital (25%), 3 Use of Internet (15%), 4 Integration of Digital Technology (20%) and 5 Digital Public Services (15%).
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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DESI Dimensions
1 Connectivity Notation: DESI_1_CONN
Definition: DESI Connectivity Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the four sub-dimensions: 1a Fixed Broadband (33%), 1b Mobile Broadband (22%), 1c Speed (33%), 1d Affordability (11%).
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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2 Human Capital Notation: DESI_2_HC
Definition: DESI Human Capital Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two sub-dimensions: 2a Basic Skills and Usage (50%), 2b Advanced skills and Development (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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3 Use of Internet Services Notation: DESI_3_UI
Definition: DESI Use of Internet Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three sub-dimensions: 3a Content (33%), 3b Communication (33%), 3c Transactions (33%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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4 Integration of Digital Technology Notation: DESI_4_IDT
Definition: DESI Integration of Digital Technology Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two sub-dimensions: 4a Business digitization (60%), 4b eCommerce (40%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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5 Digital Public Services Notation: DESI_5_DPS
Definition: DESI Digital Public Services Dimension comprising of eGovernment (100%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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DESI Sub-dimensions
1a Fixed Broadband Notation: DESI_1A_FBB
Definition: DESI Fixed Broadband sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1a1 Fixed BB Coverage (50%), 1a2 Fixed BB Take-up (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1b Mobile Broadband Notation: DESI_1B_MBB
Definition: DESI Mobile Broadband sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1b1 Mobile BB Take-up (33%),1b2 4G Coverage (33%), 1b3 Spectrum (33%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1c Fast Broadband Notation: DESI_1C_SPEED
Definition: DESI Speed sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1c1 NGA Coverage (50%), 1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1d Ultrafast Broadband Notation: DESI_1D_ULTRA
Definition: DESI Ultrafast speed sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1d1 Ultrafast BB Coverage (50%), 1d2 Ultrafast BB Take-up (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1e Broadband price index Notation: DESI_1E_BBPI
Definition: DESI Affordability sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1e1 Fixed BB Price (100%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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2a Basic Skills and Usage Notation: DESI_2A_BSU
Definition: DESI Basic Skills and Usage sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2a1 Internet Users (50%), 2a2 Basic Digital Skills (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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2b Advanced skills and Development Notation: DESI_2B_ASD
Definition: DESI Advanced Skills and Development sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2b1 ICT Specialists (50%), 2b2 STEM Graduates (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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3a Content Notation: DESI_3A_CONT
Definition: DESI Content sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3a1 News (25%), 3a2 Music, Videos and Games (25%), 3a3 Video on Demand (25%), 3a4 IPTV (25%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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3b Communication Notation: DESI_3B_COMM
Definition: DESI Communication sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3b1 Video Calls (50%), 3b2 Social Networks (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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3c Transactions Notation: DESI_3C_TRANS
Definition: DESI Transactions sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3c1 Banking (50%), 3c2 Shopping (50%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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4a Business digitization Notation: DESI_4A_BD
Definition: DESI Business Digitisation sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4a1 Electronic Information Sharing (20%), 4a2 RFID (20%), 4a3 Social Media (20%), 4a4 eInvoices (20%), 4a5 Cloud (20%)
Notes: DESI 2014 does not comprise the indicator 4a5 Cloud, the weights of the remaining indicators are adjusted at 25% each.
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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4b eCommerce Notation: DESI_4B_ECOMM
Definition: DESI eCommerce sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4b1 SMEs Selling Online (33%), 4b2 eCommerce Turnover (33%), 4b3 Selling Online Cross-border (33%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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5a eGovernment Notation: DESI_5A_EGOV
Definition: DESI eGovernment sub-dimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 5a1 eGovernment Users (25%), 5a2 Pre-filled Forms (25%), 5a3 Online Service Completion (25%), 5a4 Open Data (25%)
Notes: DESI 2014 does not comprise the indicator 5a4 Open Data, the weights of the remaining indicators are adjusted at 33% each.
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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5b eHealth Notation: DESI_5B_EHS
Definition: DESI eHealth sub-dimension comprising 5b1 eHealth services(100%)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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DESI Individual Indicators
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage Notation: DESI_1A1_FBBC
Definition: Standard fixed broadband coverage
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Study on broadband coverage
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up Notation: DESI_1A2_FBBTU
Definition: Households that have a fixed Broadband connection
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
1b1 4G Coverage Notation: DESI_1B1_4G
Definition: Percentage of populated areas coverage by 4G - measured as the average coverage of telecom operators in each country
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1b2 Mobile BB Take-up Notation: DESI_1B2_MBBTU
Definition: Mobile broadband take-up
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Communications Committee survey
1c1 NGA Coverage Notation: DESI_1C1_NGAC
Definition: Households covered by NGA broadband
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Study on broadband coverage
1c2 Fast BB take-up Notation: DESI_1C2_SFBB
Definition: Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 30 Mbps
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Communications Committee survey
1d1 Ultrafast BB Coverage Notation: DESI_1D1_UBBC
Definition: Households covered by ultrafast broadband
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1d2 Ultrafast BB Take-up Notation: DESI_1D2_UBBTA
Definition: Share of ultra fast broadband subscriptions >= 100 Mbps
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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1e1 Broadband Price Index Notation: DESI_1E1_BBPI
Definition: Price index of twelve representative broadband baskets as the percentage of household income. The baskets include three speed categories (12-30 Mbps, 30-100Mbps and at least 100 Mbps) and four types of products (standalone internet, internet + TV, internet + fixed telephony and internet + TV + fixed telephony)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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2a1 Internet Users Notation: DESI_2A1_IU
Definition: Individuals whose frequency of Internet access is at least once a week
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
2a2 At least Basic Digital Skills Notation: DESI_2A2_BDS
Definition: Individuals with basic or above basic digital skills
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
2b1 ICT Specialists Notation: DESI_2B1_ICTSPEC
Definition: Persons Employed with ICT Specialist Skills
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - Labour force survey
2b2 STEM Graduates Notation: DESI_2B2_STEMG
Definition: Science and technology graduates
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat education statistics
3a1 News Notation: DESI_3A1_NEWS
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to read online news sites, newspapers or news magazines
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3a2 Music, Videos and Games Notation: DESI_3A2_MVG
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to play or download games, images, films or music
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3a3 Video on Demand Notation: DESI_3A3_VOD
Definition: Percentage of households subcribing to any form of Video on Demand
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3b1 Video Calls Notation: DESI_3B1_VIDCALL
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to make telephone or video calls
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3b2 Social Networks Notation: DESI_3B2_SOCNET
Definition: Individuals used the Internet to participate in social networks (create user profile, post messages or other contributions to facebook, twitter, etc.)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3c1 Banking Notation: DESI_3C1_BANK
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to use online banking
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
3c2 Shopping Notation: DESI_3C2_SHOP
Definition: Individuals who ordered goods or services online
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing Notation: DESI_4A1_EIS
Definition: Enterprises who have ERP software package to share information between different functional areas
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4a2 RFID Notation: DESI_4A2_RFID
Definition: Enterprises using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies for after sales product identification or as part of the production and service delivery
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4a3 Social Media Notation: DESI_4A3_SOCMED
Definition: Enterprises that use two or more types of social media
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4a4 eInvoices Notation: DESI_4A4_EINV
Definition: Enterprises sending e-invoices suitable for automatic processing
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4a5 Cloud Notation: DESI_4A5_CLOUD
Definition: Buy Cloud Computing services of medium-high sophistication
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4b1 SMEs Selling Online Notation: DESI_4B1_SMESO
Definition: Enterprises selling online (at least 1% of turnover)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4b2 eCommerce Turnover Notation: DESI_4B2_ECOMTURN
Definition: Enterprises' total turnover from e-commerce
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border Notation: DESI_4B3_SELLCB
Definition: Enterprises that did electronic sales to other EU countries
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Enterprises survey
5a1 eGovernment Users Notation: DESI_5A1_EGOVU
Definition: Individuals sending filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, last 12 months
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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Eurostat - ICT Households survey
5a2 Pre-filled Forms Notation: DESI_5A2_PREFFORM
Definition: Amount of data that is pre-filled in Public Services' online forms (Authentic sources Key Enabler indicator of eGovernment benchmark)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (2012-2017) 
5a3 Online Service Completion Notation: DESI_5A3_OSERCOMP
Definition: Share of the steps in a Public Service life event that can be completed online (Online availability sub-indicator for User centricity of the eGovernment benchmark)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (2012-2017) 
5a4 eGovernment Services for Businesses Notation: DESI_5A4_PSB
Definition: Share of public services needed for starting a business and for conducting regular business operations that are available online for domestic as well as for foreign users (online availability sub-indicator under the two Top-Level Benchmarks “User centricity” and “Cross border mobility”). Services provided through a portal receive an higher score, services which provide only information receive a more limited score.
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (2012-2017) 
5a5 Open Data Notation: DESI_5A5_OPENDATA
Definition: Score in the Open Data Maturity indicator. This composite indicator measures to what extent countries have an Open Data policy in place (including the transposition of the revised PSI Directive), the estimated political, social and economic impact of Open Data and the characteristics (functionalities, data availability and usage) of the national data portal.
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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European Data Portal
5b1 eHealth Notation: DESI_5B1_EHS
Definition: Percentage of people who used health and care services provided online without having to go to the hospital or doctors surgery (i.e. by getting a prescription or a consultation on line)
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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DESI Overall Index - weight sliders
Digital Economy and Society Index Notation: DESI_SLIDERS
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions with the weights selected by the user: 1 Connectivity, 2 Human Capital, 3 Use of Internet, 4 Integration of Digital Technology and 5 Digital Public Services.
2014 - 2018 Find countries
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