Digital Economy and Society Index
The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) is a composite index that summarises some 30 relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States, across five main dimensions: Connectivity, Human Capital, Use of Internet, Integration of Digital Technology, Digital Public Services. Read reports and methodological notes.
The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.
Indicator  Definition and scope  Time coverage  Explore more using SPARQL queries  Source 

DESI Overall Index  
Digital Economy and Society Index 
Notation: DESI
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions: 1 Connectivity (25%), 2 Human Capital (25%), 3 Use of Internet (15%), 4 Integration of Digital Technology (20%) and 5 Digital Public Services (15%). 
2014  2018 
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DESI Dimensions  
1 Connectivity 
Notation: DESI_1_CONN
Definition: DESI Connectivity Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the five subdimensions: 1a Fixed Broadband (20%), 1b Mobile Broadband (30%), 1c Fast broadband (20%), 1d Ultrafast broadband (20%) and 1e Broadband price index (10%). 
2014  2018 
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2 Human Capital 
Notation: DESI_2_HC
Definition: DESI Human Capital Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two subdimensions: 2a Basic Skills and Usage (50%), 2b Advanced skills and Development (50%) 
2014  2018 
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3 Use of Internet Services 
Notation: DESI_3_UI
Definition: DESI Use of Internet Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three subdimensions: 3a Content (33%), 3b Communication (33%), 3c Transactions (33%) 
2014  2018 
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4 Integration of Digital Technology 
Notation: DESI_4_IDT
Definition: DESI Integration of Digital Technology Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the two subdimensions: 4a Business digitization (60%), 4b eCommerce (40%) 
2014  2018 
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5 Digital Public Services 
Notation: DESI_5_DPS
Definition: DESI Digital Public Services Dimension comprising of eGovernment (100%) 
2014  2018 
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DESI Subdimensions  
1a Fixed Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1A_FBB
Definition: DESI Fixed Broadband subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1a1 Fixed BB Coverage (50%), 1a2 Fixed BB Takeup (50%) 
2014  2018 
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1b Mobile Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1B_MBB
Definition: DESI Mobile Broadband subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1b1 4G Coverage (50%) and 1b2 Mobile BB Takeup (50%). 
2014  2018 
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1c Fast Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1C_SPEED
Definition: DESI Speed subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1c1 NGA Coverage (50%), 1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB (50%) 
2014  2018 
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1d Ultrafast Broadband 
Notation: DESI_1D_ULTRA
Definition: DESI Ultrafast speed subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1d1 Ultrafast BB Coverage (50%), 1d2 Ultrafast BB Takeup (50%) 
2014  2018 
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1e Broadband price index 
Notation: DESI_1E_BBPI
Definition: DESI Affordability subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 1e1 Fixed BB Price (100%) 
2014  2018 
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2a Basic Skills and Usage 
Notation: DESI_2A_BSU
Definition: DESI Basic Skills and Usage subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2a1 Internet Users (50%), 2a2 Basic Digital Skills (50%) 
2014  2018 
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2b Advanced skills and Development 
Notation: DESI_2B_ASD
Definition: DESI Advanced Skills and Development subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 2b1 ICT Specialists (50%), 2b2 STEM Graduates (50%) 
2014  2018 
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3a Content 
Notation: DESI_3A_CONT
Definition: DESI Content subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3a1 News (25%), 3a2 Music, Videos and Games (25%), 3a3 Video on Demand (25%), 3a4 IPTV (25%) 
2014  2018 
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3b Communication 
Notation: DESI_3B_COMM
Definition: DESI Communication subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3b1 Video Calls (50%), 3b2 Social Networks (50%) 
2014  2018 
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3c Transactions 
Notation: DESI_3C_TRANS
Definition: DESI Transactions subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 3c1 Banking (50%), 3c2 Shopping (50%) 
2014  2018 
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4a Business digitization 
Notation: DESI_4A_BD
Definition: DESI Business Digitisation subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4a1 Electronic Information Sharing (20%), 4a2 RFID (20%), 4a3 Social Media (20%), 4a4 eInvoices (20%), 4a5 Cloud (20%) Notes: DESI 2014 does not comprise the indicator 4a5 Cloud, the weights of the remaining indicators are adjusted at 25% each. 
2014  2018 
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4b eCommerce 
Notation: DESI_4B_ECOMM
Definition: DESI eCommerce subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 4b1 SMEs Selling Online (33%), 4b2 eCommerce Turnover (33%), 4b3 Selling Online Crossborder (33%) 
2014  2018 
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5a eGovernment 
Notation: DESI_5A_EGOV
Definition: DESI eGovernment subdimension calculated as the weighted average of the normalised indicators: 5a1 eGovernment Users (20%), 5a2 Prefilled Forms (20%), 5a3 Online Service Completion (20%), 5a4 eGovernment for Businesses (20%) and 5a5 Open Data (20%) 
2014  2018 
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5b eHealth 
Notation: DESI_5B_EHS
Definition: DESI eHealth subdimension comprising 5b1 eHealth services(100%) 
2014  2018 
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DESI Individual Indicators  
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1A1_FBBC
Definition: Standard fixed broadband coverage 
2014  2018 
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Study on broadband coverage 
1a2 Fixed BB Takeup 
Notation: DESI_1A2_FBBTU
Definition: Households that have a fixed Broadband connection 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
1b1 4G Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1B1_4G
Definition: Percentage of populated areas coverage by 4G  measured as the average coverage of telecom operators in each country 
2014  2018 
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1b2 Mobile BB Takeup 
Notation: DESI_1B2_MBBTU
Definition: Mobile broadband takeup 
2014  2018 
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Communications Committee survey 
1c1 NGA Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1C1_NGAC
Definition: Households covered by NGA broadband 
2014  2018 
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Study on broadband coverage 
1c2 Fast BB takeup 
Notation: DESI_1C2_SFBB
Definition: Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 30 Mbps 
2014  2018 
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Communications Committee survey 
1d1 Ultrafast BB Coverage 
Notation: DESI_1D1_UBBC
Definition: Households covered by ultrafast broadband 
2014  2018 
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1d2 Ultrafast BB Takeup 
Notation: DESI_1D2_UBBTA
Definition: Share of ultra fast broadband subscriptions >= 100 Mbps 
2014  2018 
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1e1 Broadband Price Index 
Notation: DESI_1E1_BBPI
Definition: Price index of twelve representative broadband baskets as the percentage of household income. The baskets include three speed categories (1230 Mbps, 30100Mbps and at least 100 Mbps) and four types of products (standalone internet, internet + TV, internet + fixed telephony and internet + TV + fixed telephony) 
2014  2018 
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2a1 Internet Users 
Notation: DESI_2A1_IU
Definition: Individuals whose frequency of Internet access is at least once a week 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
2a2 At least Basic Digital Skills 
Notation: DESI_2A2_BDS
Definition: Individuals with basic or above basic digital skills 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
2b1 ICT Specialists 
Notation: DESI_2B1_ICTSPEC
Definition: Persons Employed with ICT Specialist Skills 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  Labour force survey 
2b2 STEM Graduates 
Notation: DESI_2B2_STEMG
Definition: Science and technology graduates 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat education statistics 
3a1 News 
Notation: DESI_3A1_NEWS
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to read online news sites, newspapers or news magazines 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3a2 Music, Videos and Games 
Notation: DESI_3A2_MVG
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to play or download games, images, films or music 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3a3 Video on Demand 
Notation: DESI_3A3_VOD
Definition: Percentage of households subcribing to any form of Video on Demand 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3b1 Video Calls 
Notation: DESI_3B1_VIDCALL
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to make telephone or video calls 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3b2 Social Networks 
Notation: DESI_3B2_SOCNET
Definition: Individuals used the Internet to participate in social networks (create user profile, post messages or other contributions to facebook, twitter, etc.) 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3c1 Banking 
Notation: DESI_3C1_BANK
Definition: Individuals who used the Internet to use online banking 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
3c2 Shopping 
Notation: DESI_3C2_SHOP
Definition: Individuals who ordered goods or services online 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing 
Notation: DESI_4A1_EIS
Definition: Enterprises who have ERP software package to share information between different functional areas 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a2 RFID 
Notation: DESI_4A2_RFID
Definition: Enterprises using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies for after sales product identification or as part of the production and service delivery 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a3 Social Media 
Notation: DESI_4A3_SOCMED
Definition: Enterprises that use two or more types of social media 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a4 eInvoices 
Notation: DESI_4A4_EINV
Definition: Enterprises sending einvoices suitable for automatic processing 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4a5 Cloud 
Notation: DESI_4A5_CLOUD
Definition: Buy Cloud Computing services of mediumhigh sophistication 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b1 SMEs Selling Online 
Notation: DESI_4B1_SMESO
Definition: Enterprises selling online (at least 1% of turnover) 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b2 eCommerce Turnover 
Notation: DESI_4B2_ECOMTURN
Definition: Enterprises' total turnover from ecommerce 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
4b3 Selling Online Crossborder 
Notation: DESI_4B3_SELLCB
Definition: Enterprises that did electronic sales to other EU countries 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Enterprises survey 
5a1 eGovernment Users 
Notation: DESI_5A1_EGOVU
Definition: Individuals sending filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, last 12 months 
2014  2018 
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Eurostat  ICT Households survey 
5a2 Prefilled Forms 
Notation: DESI_5A2_PREFFORM
Definition: Amount of data that is prefilled in Public Services' online forms (Authentic sources Key Enabler indicator of eGovernment benchmark) 
2014  2018 
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (20122017) 
5a3 Online Service Completion 
Notation: DESI_5A3_OSERCOMP
Definition: Share of the steps in a Public Service life event that can be completed online (Online availability subindicator for User centricity of the eGovernment benchmark) 
2014  2018 
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (20122017) 
5a4 eGovernment Services for Businesses 
Notation: DESI_5A4_PSB
Definition: Share of public services needed for starting a business and for conducting regular business operations that are available online for domestic as well as for foreign users (online availability subindicator under the two TopLevel Benchmarks “User centricity” and “Cross border mobility”). Services provided through a portal receive an higher score, services which provide only information receive a more limited score. 
2014  2018 
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eGovernment Benchmarking Report, Studies for the EC performed by Capgemini (20122017) 
5a5 Open Data 
Notation: DESI_5A5_OPENDATA
Definition: Score in the Open Data Maturity indicator. This composite indicator measures to what extent countries have an Open Data policy in place (including the transposition of the revised PSI Directive), the estimated political, social and economic impact of Open Data and the characteristics (functionalities, data availability and usage) of the national data portal. 
2014  2018 
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European Data Portal 
5b1 eHealth 
Notation: DESI_5B1_EHS
Definition: Percentage of people who used health and care services provided online without having to go to the hospital or doctors surgery (i.e. by getting a prescription or a consultation on line) 
2014  2018 
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DESI Overall Index  weight sliders  
Digital Economy and Society Index 
Notation: DESI_SLIDERS
Definition: DESI overall index, calculated as the weighted average of the five main DESI dimensions with the weights selected by the user: 1 Connectivity, 2 Human Capital, 3 Use of Internet, 4 Integration of Digital Technology and 5 Digital Public Services. 
2014  2018 
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