European Commission services selected various indicators, divided into thematic groups, which illustrate some key dimensions of the European information society (Telecom sector, Broadband, Mobile, Internet usage, Internet services, eGovernment, eCommerce, eBusiness, ICT Skills, Research and Development). These indicators allow a comparison of progress across European countries as well as over time. Multiple interactive charts allow you to assess countries' profiles.

The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.

Indicator Information
Telecom sector
Total revenues of the electronic communications sector
Notation: tel_rev
Definition: Total includes wholesale and retail revenues from electronic communications perceived in the reference year by all telecom operators (VAT excluded)
Time coverage: 2009 - 2015
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Total investment in networks by the electronic communications sector
Notation: tel_inv
Definition: Total investment includes both tangible and intangible investment in telecommunication networks (without license fees) by all telecom operators
Time coverage: 2009 - 2015
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Fixed voice termination rate
Notation: tel_ftr
Definition: Wholesale call termination charges of the incumbent operator in fixed voice tecephony for local calls
Time coverage: 2012 - 2017
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Local Loop Unbundling: total monthly charge
Notation: tel_llu
Definition: The monthly total wholesale cost for Local Loop Unbundling charged by incumbent operators, Calculated as the sum of the monthly charge and 1/36 of the conncetion fee
Time coverage: 2012 - 2016
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Broadband take-up and coverage
Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage
Notation: bb_vhcncov
Definition: Percentage of households covered by any fixed VHCN. The technologies considered are FTTH and FTTB for 2015-2018 and FTTH, FTTB and Cable Docsis 3.1 for 2019 onwards. Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Rural Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage
Notation: bb_rvhcncov
Definition: Percentage of households covered by any fixed VHCN. The technologies considered are FTTH and FTTB for 2015-2018 and FTTH, FTTB and Cable Docsis 3.1 for 2019 onwards.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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NGA broadband coverage/availability (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_ngacov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by NGA. Next Generation Access includes the following technologies: FTTH, FTTB, Cable Docsis 3.0, VDSL and other superfast broadband (at least 30 Mbps download)
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Rural NGA broadband coverage/availability (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_rngacov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by NGA. Next Generation Access includes the following technologies: FTTH, FTTB, Cable Docsis 3.0, VDSL and other superfast broadband (at least 30 Mbps download). Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Standard fixed broadband coverage/availability (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_scov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by xDSL, cable (basic and NGA), FTTP or WiMax networks
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Rural standard fixed broadband coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_srcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by xDSL, cable (basic and NGA), FTTP or WiMax networks. Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Fibre to the Premises coverage/availability (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_fttpcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by FTTP
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Rural Fibre to the Premises coverage/availability (as a % of households)
Notation: bb_rfttpcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas served by FTTP. Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Households having a broadband connection
Notation: h_broad
Definition: Broadband connection used by the household includes: DSL, wired fixed (cable, fiber, Ethernet, PLC), fixed wireless (satellite, WiFi, WiMax) and mobile wireless (3G/UMTS).
Notes: Scope includes Households with at least one member aged 16-74.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Households with fixed broadband connection
Notation: h_bbfix
Definition: Household internet connection type: fixed broadband
Time coverage: 2010 - 2020
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Households with fast fixed broadband connection
Notation: h_fbbfix
Definition: Households with fast fixed broadband connection
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Households with ultrafast fixed broadband connection
Notation: h_ubbfix
Definition: Households with ultrafast fixed broadband connection
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Enterprises having a fixed broadband connection
Notation: e_broad
Definition: Fixed broadband connections include DSL, xDSL, cable leased lines, Frame Relay, Metro-Ethernet, PLC-Powerline communications, fixed wireless connections, etc.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Enterprises having a fast fixed broadband connection
Notation: e_ispdf_ge30
Definition: The maximum contracted download speed of the fastest fixed internet connection is at least 30 Mb/s
Time coverage: 2014 - 2019
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Fixed broadband take-up (subscriptions/100 people)
Notation: bb_penet
Definition: Number of fixed broadband subscriptions (lines) per 100 people. Penetration of fixed broadband.
Time coverage: 2004 - 2020
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Fixed broadband subscriptions
Notation: bb_lines
Definition: Number of fixed broadband subscriptions (lines).
Time coverage: 2004 - 2020
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DSL subscriptions share in fixed broadband
Notation: bb_dsl
Definition: Share of DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) in total fixed broadband subscriptions.
Time coverage: 2004 - 2020
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New entrants' share in fixed broadband subscriptions
Notation: bb_ne
Definition: Market share based on fixed broadband subscriptions (lines). New entrants mean operators that did not enjoy special and exclusive rights or de facto monopoly for the provision of voice telephony services before the liberalisation.
Time coverage: 2004 - 2020
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The speed of the fixed connection to internet is not sufficient for the actual needs of the enterprise
Notation: e_ispdfokx
Definition: Number of enterprises reporting that the speed of the fixed connection(s) to the internet is usually not sufficient for the actual needs of the enterprise
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2017
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The speed of the fixed connection to internet (at least 100 Mb/s) is not sufficient for the actual needs of the enterprise
Notation: e_ispdfokx_ge100
Definition: Number of enterprises reporting that the speed of the fixed connection(s) to the internet (at least 100 Mb/s) is usually not sufficient for the actual needs of the enterprise
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2017
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Broadband speeds and prices
Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 2 Mbps - Advertised download speed
Notation: bb_speed2
Definition: Based on advertised download speeds.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2020
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Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 10 Mbps - Advertised download speed
Notation: bb_speed10
Definition: Based on advertised download speeds.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2020
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Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 30 Mbps - Advertised download speed
Notation: bb_speed30
Definition: Based on advertised download speeds.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Share of fixed broadband subscriptions >= 100 Mbps - Advertised download speed
Notation: bb_speed100
Definition: Based on advertised download speeds.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Actual download speed of fixed broadband subscriptions
Notation: actspeed
Definition: Average Download Speed during peak periods (ACTSPEED), measured with a specially configured hardware device (SamKnows Whitebox), which runs a series of purpose-built tests to measure various aspect of Internet performance. The measured speed refers to a sample of subscriptions using a similar technology offered by internet service providers. Offers are not weigthed with market shares, so the measured speed cannot be interpreted as the average experienced by consumers.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2014
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Monthly price of standalone internet access
Notation: price_internet_only
Definition: Monthly price of standalone Fixed Broadband Internet Access offers, including value added tax, excluding the additional cost of telephony or cable line (if any). The minimum and median prices refer to the group of similar subscriptions offered by internet service providers. Offers are not weigthed with market shares, so the offers' median price cannot be interpreted as the median price paid by consumers.
Notes: If no data is present for a country, it is because no corresponding offers have been found on the national market.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2015
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Monthly price of Fixed Broadband Internet Access offers including Fixed Telephony
Notation: price_internet_fixed_tel
Definition: Monthly price of Fixed Broadband Internet Access offers including Fixed Telephony, including value added tax, excluding the aditional cost of telephony or cable line (if any). The minimum and median prices refer to the group of similar subscriptions offered by internet service providers. Offers are not weigthed with market shares, so the offers' median price cannot be interpreted as the median price paid by consumers.
Notes: If no data is present for a country, it is because no corresponding offers have been found on the national market.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2015
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Monthly price of Internet Acccess + Fixed Telephony + TV bundles
Notation: price_internet_fixed_tel_tv
Definition: Monthly price of Fixed Broadband Internet Access offers including Fixed Telephony and TV (analogue or digital television service), including value added tax, excluding the aditional cost of telephony or cable line (if any). The minimum and median prices refer to the group of similar subscriptions offered by internet service providers. Offers are not weigthed with market shares, so the offers' median price cannot be interpreted as the median price paid by consumers.
Notes: If no data is present for a country, it is because no corresponding offers have been found on the national market.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2015
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Affordability of standalone Fixed Internet Access (minimum price offer)
Notation: afford_internet_only_minppp
Definition: Affordability is defined as 12 times the monthly price divided by the "real adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita" of the previous year. Disposable income data come from Eurostat table tec00113. Monthly price of standalone Fixed Broadband Internet Access offers, include value added tax, exclude the additional cost of telephony or cable line (if any), and refers to the minimum price in the group of similar subscriptions offered by internet service providers (see the original indicator).
Time coverage: 2013 - 2015
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Households that have no access to Internet at home, because the costs are too high
Notation: h_xcost
Definition: Households that have no access to Internet at home, because the costs are too high
Time coverage: 2011 - 2019
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Mobile market
5G mobile broadband coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_5gcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by fifth generation mobile broadband.
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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Rural 5G mobile broadband coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_r5gcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by fifth generation mobile broadband. Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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5G readiness
Notation: 5g_read
Definition: The amount of spectrum assigned and ready for 5G use within the so-called 5G pioneer bands. These bands are 700 MHz (703-733 MHz and 758-788 MHz), 3.6 GHz (3400-3800 MHz) and 26 GHz (1000 MHz within 24250-27500 MHz). All three spectrum bands have an equal weight.
Time coverage: 2019 - 2021
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4G mobile broadband (LTE) coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_ltecov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by advanced fourth generation mobile broadband (LTE protocol)
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Rural 4G mobile broadband (LTE) coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_rltecov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by advanced fourth generation mobile broadband (LTE protocol). Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Advanced 3G mobile broadband (HSPA) coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_hspacov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by advanced third generation mobile broadband (HSPA protocol)
Time coverage: 2011 - 2019
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Rural advanced 3G mobile broadband (HSPA) coverage (as a % of households)
Notation: mbb_rhspacov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of Households living in areas covered by advanced third generation mobile broadband (HSPA protocol). Rural areas are defined as those with less than 100 people per km2.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2019
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Total number of subscriptions (SIM cards)
Notation: mob_subs
Definition: Mobile subscriptions are defined as the number of active SIM cards. It includes both voice and data services, installed in telephones, modem, usb keys or other devices.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2016
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Take-up of mobile - active SIM cards for voice or data
Notation: mob_penet
Definition: Number of active SIM cards divided by population. It includes both voice and data services, installed in telephones, modem, usb keys or other devices.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2016
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Take-up of mobile broadband (subscriptions/100 people)
Notation: mbb_penet
Definition: Mobile Broadband penetration is defined as the number of active mobile broadband SIM cards per 100 people.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2020
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Individuals accessing the Internet through a mobile phone via UMTS (3G)
Notation: i_iu3g
Definition: Individuals using a mobile phone or smart phone to access the internet, in the last 3 months. Since 2011 the question specify "away from home or work". Until 2012 the question was limited to "via UMTS, HSDPA (3G or 3G+) connections".
Notes: Break in series in 2011 and 2012 as the structure of the question has changed. Reconstructed time series using Eurostat variables: i_iu3g, i_iu3G1, i_iuhd_mph, i_iump_mph
Time coverage: 2006 - 2017
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Enterprises providing portable devices to some of their persons employed
Notation: e_pmd
Definition: The devices (portable computers, tablets, smartphones, PDA phones, etc.) should be provided for business use and the enterprises pay for all or at least up to a limit the subscription and the use costs.
Notes: The 2011 question was limited to portable devices using at least 3G technology to connect to the internet. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Market share of leading operator (in % of active SIM cards)
Notation: mob_ms
Definition: Market share of the market leader based on the number of active SIM cards
Time coverage: 2009 - 2016
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Average Revenue per User (ARPU) in the Retail Mobile Market
Notation: mob_arpu
Definition: Total retail mobile revenues divided by number of active SIM cards
Time coverage: 2010 - 2015
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Mobile roaming price per minute
Notation: mob_roam
Definition: Average retail price per minute (in €-cents) on Eurotariff for intra-EEA roaming voice calls made
Time coverage: 2007 - 2014
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Spectrum assigned for wireless broadband in EU harmonised bands
Notation: spectrum_wbb
Definition: Amount of spectrum assigned by Member States for wireless mobile broadband comunications (WBB) within the ranges harmonised by the European Union. Charts allow to compare with the total value of EU HARMONISED bands and with a simple EU AVERAGE of countries assignements. The policy target is to harmonise and assign 1200 MHz to WBB.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2016
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Source: ECO Report 03
Mobile voice termination rate
Notation: mob_mtr
Definition: Wholesale call termination charges in mobile voice tecephony
Time coverage: 2004 - 2017
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Internet usage
Households with access to the Internet at home
Notation: h_iacc
Definition: Any member of the household has access to the Internet at home
Notes: Scope includes Households with at least one member aged 16-74.
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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Individuals who have used internet in the last 3 months
Notation: i_iu3
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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Individuals who have used internet in the last 12 months
Notation: i_ilt12
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Individuals who are regular internet users (at least once a week)
Notation: i_iuse
Definition: Individuals using the internet at least once a week in the last 3 months.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Individuals who are frequent internet users (every day or almost every day)
Notation: i_iday
Definition: Individuals using the internet every day or almost every day, in the last 3 months.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Individuals using a laptop/tablet to access the internet, away from home or work
Notation: i_iumc
Definition: Individuals using a portable computer (laptop) to access the internet away from home or work via any wireless connection (WiFi or cellular networks), in the last 3 months. Since 2012 the question explicitly mention also tablet computer (with touch screen).
Notes: Break in series in 2011 and 2012 as the structure of the question has changed. Reconstructed time series using Eurostat varibales: i_iuport, i_iuport1, i_iumc
Time coverage: 2007 - 2019
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Individuals who have never used the internet
Notation: i_iux
Time coverage: 2005 - 2020
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Audiovisual & media content
reading / downloading online newspapers / news magazines
Notation: i_iunw
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for reading / downloading online newspapers / news magazines
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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playing or downloading games, images, films or music
Notation: i_iugm
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for playing or downloading games, images films or music
Notes: Biennial indicator not collected in 2011
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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Individuals watching video on demand from commercial services
Notation: i_iuvod
Definition: Individuals watching video on demand from commercial services
Time coverage: 2016 - 2020
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Take up of internet services
looking for information about goods and services online
Notation: i_iuif
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for finding information about goods and services
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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using online banking
Notation: i_iubk
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for Internet banking
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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telephoning or video calls (via webcam) over the internet
Notation: i_iuph1
Notes: Biennial indicator. Break in time series between 2007 and 2008 because of new wording. Reconstructed time series using Eurostat varibales: i_iuph and i_iuph1.
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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uploading self-created content to be shared
Notation: i_iuupl
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for uploading self-created content (text, images, photos, videos, music, etc.)
Notes: Biennial indicator not collected in 2011.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2019
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participating in social networks, over the internet, last 3 months
Notation: i_iusnet
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for participating in social networks (creating user profile, posting messages or other contributions to facebook, twitter, etc.)
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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looking online for a job or sending a job application
Notation: i_iujob
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for looking for a job or sending a job application
Time coverage: 2004 - 2019
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doing an online course (in any subject)
Notation: i_iuolc
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for doing an online course (of any subject)
Time coverage: 2007 - 2020
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taking part in on-line consultations or voting to define civic or political issues
Notation: i_iuvote
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for taking part in on-line consultations or voting to define civic or political issues (e.g. urban planning, signing a petition)
Notes: Biennial indicator not collected in 2012.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2019
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Used internet storage space to save documents, pictures, music, video or other files
Notation: i_cc
Definition: Used internet storage space to save documents, pictures, music, video or other files
Time coverage: 2014 - 2020
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eGovernment
Individuals submitting completed forms to public authorities, over the internet, last 12 months
Notation: i_igov12rt
Time coverage: 2008 - 2020
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Pre-filled forms
Notation: e_gov_pff
Definition: Amount of data that is pre-filled in Public Services' online forms (Authentic sources Key Enabler indicator of eGovernment benchmark)
Notes: The data was recalculated to include EU27 Average.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2020
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Digital Public Services for Citizens
Notation: e_gov_dpsc
Definition: The extent to which a service or information concerning service for citizens is provided online, and via a portal. Services that are offered fully, partially or not at all online.
Notes: It is calculated as the average of the national and cross-border online availability for basic and extended services within the citizen-related Life Events from the last two years (Family, Career, Studying, Moving, Owning and driving a car and Starting a small claims procedure).
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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Digital Public Services for Businesses
Notation: e_gov_ebus
Definition: The extent to which a service or information concerning service for businesses is provided online and via a portal. Services that are offered fully, partially or not at all online.
Notes: It is calculated as the average of the national and cross-border online availability for basic and extended services within the business-related Life Events from the last two years (Business Start-up and Regular Business Operations). Until 2019 (included), the indicator was measuring Basic services for National and Cross-Border. Meaning that as of 2020, the extended services were also added. The data was recalculated to include EU27 Average.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2020
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Open Data
Notation: e_gov_od
Definition: A series of indicators have been selected to measure Open Data maturity across Europe. These indicators cover the level of development of national policies promoting Open Data, an assessment of the features made available on national data portals as well as the expected impact and quality of Open Data.
Notes: This composite indicator comprises 4 dimensions: i)Open Data Policy that focuses on the presence of specific olicies and strategies to foster open data at national level; ii) Open Data Impact that looks at the activities performed to monitor and measure open re-use and the impact derived by such re-use; iii) Open Data Portal that focuses on advanced portal unctions that enable both versed and less versed users to access open data via the national portal and features that enhance the interaction between publishers and re-users (via forum and discussion boards); and iv) Open Data Quality that focuses on the measures dopted by portal managers to ensure the systematic harvesting of metadata from sources across the country, as well as the urrency of the available metadata and where possible the actual data, the monitoring of the compliance with the DCAT-AP metadata standard as well as the quality of eployment of the published data. Break in series in 2020 due to methodological changes. The data was recalculated to include EU27 Average. For more information please consult: https://www.europeandataportal.eu/en/impact-studies/open-data-maturity
Time coverage: 2019 - 2020
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Individuals interacting online with public authorities, last 12 months
Notation: i_iugov12
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 12 months, for interaction with public authorities. It includes obtaining information from public authorities web sites, OR downloading official forms OR sending filled in forms.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2020
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Online Service Completion
Notation: e_gov_osc
Definition: Share of the steps in a Public Service life event that can be completed online (Online availability sub-indicator for User centricity of the eGovernment benchmark)
Notes: The indicator was measuring: Basic and Extended services for National services only till 2019. From 2020 the new indicator, "Digital Public Services for Citizens", was introduced. Together with the "Digital Public Services for Business' they are fully covering the spectrum of online services. The data was recalculated to include EU27 Average.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2019
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eCommerce
Individuals ordering goods or services online
Notation: i_blt12
Definition: Individuals carrying out this activity over the internet in the last 12 months, for private use.
Time coverage: 2004 - 2020
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Individuals ordering goods or services online, from sellers from other EU countries
Notation: i_bfeu
Definition: Individuals that ordered goods or services for private use over the Internet in the last 12 months from sellers from other EU countries
Time coverage: 2008 - 2019
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Individuals ordering physical goods online
Notation: i_bpgood
Definition: Individuals that have ordered online any of the following physical goods: food/groceries, household goods, medicine, clothes/sports, computer hardware, electronic equipment.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2019
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Individuals ordering services online
Notation: i_bserv
Definition: Individuals that have ordered online any of the following services: telecommunications services, share/insurance/financial, holiday accomodation, travel arrangements, tickets for events.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2019
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Individuals ordering content or software that were delivered or upgraded online
Notation: i_bgoodo
Definition: The online content and software include: films, music, books, magazines, e-learning material, computer software, video games, that were ordered/bought over the Internet in the last 12 months, for non-work use.
Time coverage: 2005 - 2014
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Individuals ordering content or software delivered online or offline
Notation: i_bgood
Definition: Online purchases: films/music or books/magazines/e-learning material or computer software
Time coverage: 2005 - 2019
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Individuals selling goods or services online (e.g. via auctions)
Notation: i_iusell
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for selling goods and services (e.g. via auctions)
Time coverage: 2002 - 2020
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Individuals who did not encounter problems when buying/ordering goods or services over the internet for private use
Notation: i_barr1x
Definition: Individuals who had no problems buying/ordering goods or services over the internet for private use
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Enterprises using any computer network for sales (at least 1%)
Notation: e_esell
Definition: The sales realised, during the previous calendar year, via any computer networks should represent at least 1% of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT). Computer networks include websites, EDI-type systems and other means of electronic data transfer, excluding manually typed e-mails.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Total electronic sales by enterprises, as a % of their total turnover
Notation: e_eturn
Definition: The value of sales realised, during the previous calendar year, via any computer networks in % of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT). Computer networks include websites, EDI-type systems and other means of electronic data transfer, excluding manually typed e-mails.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Enterprises having done electronic sales to other EU countries in the last calender year
Notation: e_aeseu
Definition: The sales have been realised, during the previous calendar year, via any computer networks (in monetary terms, excluding VAT). Computer networks include websites, EDI-type systems and other means of electronic data transfer, excluding manually typed e-mails.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2019
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Enterprises exploiting the "Business to Consumers" opportunities of web sales
Notation: e_aws_gt1_b2c_gt10ws
Definition: Enterprises where web sales are more than 1% of total turnover and B2C web sales more than 10% of the web sales
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2020
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Sells via own website or apps as a pecentage of turnover
Notation: e_awsval_cown
Definition: The value of sales made during the previous calendar year, via their own website or apps in % of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2020
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Enterprises using e-Commerce marketplace for sales
Notation: e_aws_cmp
Definition: Share of enterprises that, during the previous calendar year, received orders for goods or services via an e-Commerce marketplace
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2020
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Enterprises using their own website or apps for sales
Notation: e_aws_cown
Definition: Share of enterprises that, during the previous calendar year, received orders for goods or services via their own website or apps.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2020
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Sells via marketplace as a pecentage of turnover
Notation: e_awsval_cmp
Definition: The value of sales made during the previous calendar year, via an e-Commerce marketplace in % of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2017 - 2020
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Enterprises selling via a website or apps by geographical location of the costumer
Notation: e_aws
Definition: Share of the enterprises that, during the previous calendar year, received orders by costumers located in the own country, other EU countries or the rest of the world
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2019
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Enterprises selling over 50% via a website or apps
Notation: e_wsel50
Definition: The sales made via website or apps, during the previous calendar year, should represent at least 50% of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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Enterprises selling over 25% via a website or apps
Notation: e_wsel25
Definition: The sales made via website or apps, during the previous calendar year, should represent at least 25% of the total turnover value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2020
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eBusiness
Enterprises that share internally electronic information with an ERP
Notation: e_erp1
Definition: Have in use an ERP-Enterprise resource planning software package, to share information between different functional areas (e.g. accounting, planning, production, marketing).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment. Break in series in 2012 due to different wording of the question.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2019
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Enterprises using Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software
Notation: e_crman
Definition: CRM refers to the use of any software application used for the analysis of information about clients for marketing purposes.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2019
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Enterprises sharing electronic information on the supply chain
Notation: e_sisc
Definition: The indicator refers to sending/receiving all type of information on the supply chain (e.g. inventory levels, production plans, forecasts, progress of delivery) via computer networks or via websites, but excluding manually typed e-mail messages.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because untill 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment. Biennial indicator not collected in 2011.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2017
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Enterprises sending e-invoices (derived indicator)
Notation: e_invsnd
Definition: The indicator refers to sending invoices in an agreed standard format (as EDIFACT, XML, etc) which allows their automatic processing, without the individual message being manually typed. Eurostat variable e_inv3sbg_ap_gt0
Notes: Break in series in 2011 because of a new more precise question. Break in series in 2014 because of introduction of a limitation to invoices sent to business or public organisations.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2017
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Enterprises having a web site or homepage
Notation: e_web
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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Enterprises having a website with some sofisticated functionalities
Notation: e_webf2
Definition: Website having at least one of the following four functionalities : product catalogues or price lists (webacc), possibilities for visitors to customise or design the products (webctm), order tracking available online (webot) or personalised content in the website for regular/repeated visitors (webper).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2020
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Enterprises providing persons employed a remote access to the enterprise's e-mail system, documents or applications
Notation: e_ra
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2016
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Enterprises providing portable devices to more than 20% of their employed persons
Notation: e_empmd_gt20
Definition: The devices (portable computers, tablets, smartphones, PDA phones, etc.) should be provided for business use and the enterprises pay for all or at least up to a limit the subscription and the use costs.
Notes: Only the 2011 question was limited to portable devices using at least 3G technology to connect to the internet. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2017
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Persons employed which were provided a portable device by their employer (business sector)
Notation: p_empmd
Definition: The devices (portable computers, tablets, smartphones, PDA phones, etc.) should be provided for business use and the enterprises pay for all or at least up to a limit the subscription and the use costs. Are included only the enterprises with 10 or more persons employed, from all manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Notes: The 2011 question was limited to portable devices using at least 3G technology to connect to the internet.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2017
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Enterprises using mobile Internet to run business applications
Notation: e_pmd_app
Definition: Mobile connection to the Internet for business use to use dedicated business software applications
Time coverage: 2012 - 2018
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Enterprises paying to advertise on the internet
Notation: e_ads
Definition: Enterprises paying to advertise on the internet
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2018
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Enterprises with High levels of Digital Intensity
Notation: e_di_hivhi
Definition: The Digital Intensity score is based on counting how many out of 12 technologies are used by each enterprise. High levels are attributed to those enterprises using at least 7 of the listed digital technologies.
Notes: The 2015 list of technologies includes: usage of internet by a majority of the workers; access to ICT specialist skills; fixed broadband speed > 30 Mbps; mobile devices used by more than 20% of employed persons; has a website; has some sophisticated functions on the website; presence on social media; does e-sales for at least 1% of turnover; exploit the B2C opportunities of web sales; use an ERP software; use a CRM software; share electronically supply chain management information. In 2016 the last 3 indicators have been replaced with: pay to advertise on the internet; purchase cloud computing advanced services; send eInvoices. There is thus a break in series with in general a reduction of the digital intensity scores.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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Enterprises with Very Low level of Digital Intensity
Notation: e_di_vlo
Definition: The Digital Intensity score is based on counting how many out of 12 technologies are used by each enterprise. Very Low levels are attributed to those enterprises using no more than 3 of the listed digital technologies.
Notes: The 2015 list of technologies includes: usage of internet by a majority of the workers; access to ICT specialist skills; fixed broadband speed > 30 Mbps; mobile devices used by more than 20% of employed persons; has a website; has some sophisticated functions on the website; presence on social media; does e-sales for at least 1% of turnover; exploit the B2C opportunities of web sales; use an ERP software; use a CRM software; share electronically supply chain management information. In 2016 the last 3 indicators have been replaced with: pay to advertise on the internet; purchase cloud computing advanced services; send eInvoices. There is thus a break in series with in general a reduction of the digital intensity scores.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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Digital Intensity score for Enterprises
Notation: edigint2015
Definition: The Digital Intensity score is based on counting how many out of 12 technologies are used by each enterprise. Then they are divided into four clusters of digital intensity: Very Low (scores 0-3), Low (score 4-6), High (score 7-9), Very High (score 10-12).
Notes: The 2015 list of technologies includes: usage of internet by a majority of the workers; access to ICT specialist skills; fixed broadband speed > 30 Mbps; mobile devices used by more than 20% of employed persons; has a website; has some sophisticated functions on the website; presence on social media; does e-sales for at least 1% of turnover; exploit the B2C opportunities of web sales; use an ERP software; use a CRM software; share electronically supply chain management information. In 2016 the last 3 indicators have been replaced with: pay to advertise on the internet; purchase cloud computing advanced services; send eInvoices. There is thus a break in series with in general a reduction of the digital intensity scores.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2020
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Enterprises using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies
Notation: e_rfid
Definition: RFID tags or transponders are devices that can be applied to or incorporated into a product or object and transmits data via radiowaves. The indicator includes their use for person identification, for tracking of supply chain and inventory or for after-sales product identification.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Since 2010 data include also sector S95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment. Biennial indicator not collected in 2010.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2017
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Enterprises using RFID technologies for person identification or access control
Notation: e_rfac
Definition: RFID tags or transponders are devices that can be applied to or incorporated into a product or object and transmits data via radiowaves.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2017
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Enterprises using RFID for product identification
Notation: e_rfpsas
Definition: RFID tags or transponders are devices that can be applied to or incorporated into a product or object and transmits data via radiowaves. The indicator includes their use for tracking of supply chain and inventory or for after-sales product identification.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2017
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Enterprises using social media
Notation: e_sm_any
Definition: Enterprises using at least one of the following social media: social networks, enterprise's blog or microblog, multimedia content sharing websites, wiki based knowledge sharing tools. Using social media means that the enterprise have a user profile, an account or a user license depending on the requirements and the type of the social media.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2019
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Use two or more social media
Notation: e_sm_ge2
Definition: Enterprises using two or more of the following social media: social networks, enterprise's blog or microblog, multimedia content sharing websites, wiki based knowledge sharing tools. Using social media means that the enterprise have a user profile, an account or a user license depending on the requirements and the type of the social media.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2019
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Buy Cloud Computing services used over the internet
Notation: e_cc
Definition: Cloud computing refers to purchased ICT services that have all of the following characteristics: are delivered from servers of service providers; can be easily scaled up or down; can be used on-demand by the user without human interaction with the service provider; are paid for, either per user, by capacity used, or they are pre-paid.Eurostat variable e_cc_ge_me
Notes: Cloud computing may include connections via Virtual Private Networks (VPN). Optional question in 2015, not all countries have collected the indicator.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2020
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Buy Cloud Computing services of medium-high sophistication
Notation: e_cc_ge_me
Definition: Enterprises purchasing at least one of the following cloud computing services: hosting of the enterprise's database, accounting software applications, CRM software, computing power.
Notes: Computed from Eurostat database with the following formula = (e_cc_me) - (e_cc_lo) + (e_cc_hi). Optional question in 2015, not all countries have collected the indicator.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2020
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Enterprises analysing big data from any data source
Notation: e_bd
Definition: Analyse big data from any data source
Time coverage: 2016 - 2018
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Digital Skills
Individuals with above basic level of digital skills
Notation: i_dsk_ab
Definition: Persons that have been using internet during last 3 months are attributed a score on four digital competence domains: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving, depending the activities they have been able to do. The scores in each domain are basic, above basic and below basic. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills. To be classified "basic or above basic" on the overall indicator an individual has to have basic or above basic skills in all the four Digital Competence domains included in the index: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with at least basic digital skills
Notation: i_dsk_bab
Definition: Persons that have been using internet during last 3 months are attributed a score on four digital competence domains: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving, depending the activities they have been able to do. The scores in each domain are basic, above basic and below basic. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills. To be classified "basic or above basic" on the overall indicator an individual has to have basic or above basic skills in all the four Digital Competence domains included in the index: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with low level of digital skills (missing some type of basic skills)
Notation: i_dsk_l
Definition: Persons that have been using internet during last 3 months are attributed a score on four digital competence domains: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving, depending the activities they have been able to do. The scores in each domain are basic, above basic and below basic. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills. To be classified "basic or above basic" on the overall indicator an individual has to have basic or above basic skills in all the four Digital Competence domains included in the index: information, communication, content-creation and problem-solving.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with above basic level of digital skills in Information domain
Notation: i_dsk_i_ab
Definition: Information processing skills refers to the ability to identify, locate, retrieve, store, organise and analyse digital information, judging its relevance and purpose. The indicator is based on five activities internet users have been able to do online during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with at least basic digital skills in Information domain
Notation: i_dsk_i_bab
Definition: Information processing skills refers to the ability to identify, locate, retrieve, store, organise and analyse digital information, judging its relevance and purpose. The indicator is based on five activities internet users have been able to do online during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with above basic level of digital skills in Communication domain
Notation: i_dsk_c_ab
Definition: These skills refer to the ability to communicate in digital environments, share resources through online tools, link with others and collaborate through digital tools, interact with and participate in communities and networks, cross-cultural awareness. The indicator is based on four activities internet users have been able to do online during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with at least basic digital skills in Communication domain
Notation: i_dsk_c_bab
Definition: These skills refer to the ability to communicate in digital environments, share resources through online tools, link with others and collaborate through digital tools, interact with and participate in communities and networks, cross-cultural awareness. The indicator is based on four activities internet users have been able to do online during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with above basic level of digital skills in Problem solving domain
Notation: i_dsk_ps_ab
Definition: Problem solving skills refers to the ability to identify digital needs and resources, make informed decisions as to which are the most appropriate digital tools according to the purpose or need, solve conceptual problems through digital means, creatively use technologies, solve technical problems, update one's own and others' competences. The indicator is based on three basic digital problems and familiarity with four online services internet users have been able to do during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with at least basic digital skills in Problem solving domain
Notation: i_dsk_ps_bab
Definition: Problem solving skills refers to the ability to identify digital needs and resources, make informed decisions as to which are the most appropriate digital tools according to the purpose or need, solve conceptual problems through digital means, creatively use technologies, solve technical problems, update one's own and others' competences. The indicator is based on three basic digital problems and familiarity with four online services internet users have been able to do during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with above basic level of digital skills in Software domain
Notation: i_dsk_s_ab
Definition: Software skills for content manipulation refer to the ability to create and edit new content (from word processing to images and video); integrate and re-elaborate previous knowledge and content; produce creative expressions, media outputs and programming; deal with and apply intellectual property rights and licences. The indicator is based on six activities internet users have been able to do during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Individuals with at least basic digital skills in Software domain
Notation: i_dsk_s_bab
Definition: Software skills for content manipulation refer to the ability to create and edit new content (from word processing to images and video); integrate and re-elaborate previous knowledge and content; produce creative expressions, media outputs and programming; deal with and apply intellectual property rights and licences. The indicator is based on six activities internet users have been able to do during previous 3 months. The scores are basic, above basic and none. Individuals not using internet are classified without digital skills.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SK_DSKL_I. Consult the methodological note on DG CONNECT newsroom.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2019
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Science and technology graduates
Notation: st_grad
Definition: Tertiary graduates in science and technology per 1 000 inhabitants aged 20-29 years includes new tertiary graduates in a calendar year from both public and private institutions completing graduate and post graduate studies compared to an age group that corresponds to the typical graduation age in most countries.
Time coverage: 2013 - 2016
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Women in Digital
Women in Digital (WID) score
Notation: wid_score
Definition: Women in digital score calculated as the weighted average of the three sub-dimensions: 1 Use of internet (33.3%), 2 Internet users skills (33.3%), 3 Specialist skills and employment (33.3%).
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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1 Use of internet
Notation: wid_ui
Definition: WID Use of internet dimension calculated as the weighted average of the six indicators: 1.1 Regular internet use (16.67%), 1.2 People who never used the internet (16.67%), 1.3 Online banking (16.67%), 1.4 Doing an online course (16.67%), 1.5 Online consultations or voting (16.67%), 1.6 eGovernment users (16.67%).
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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1.1 Regular internet use
Notation: wid_ui_iu
Definition: People who used the Internet at least once a week
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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1.2 People who never used the internet
Notation: wid_ui_nui
Definition: People who never used the Internet
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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1.3 Online banking
Notation: wid_ui_ib
Definition: People who used the Internet to use online banking
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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1.4 Doing an online course
Notation: wid_ui_oc
Definition: People who used the Internet for doing an online course (on any subject)
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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1.5 Online consultations or voting
Notation: wid_ui_part
Definition: People who took part in on-line consultations or voting to define civic or political issues (e.g. urban planning, signing a petition)
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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1.6 eGovernment users
Notation: wid_ui_egov
Definition: People who sent filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, previous 12 months
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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2 Internet user skills
Notation: wid_ius
Definition: WID Internet user skills dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three indicators: 2.1 At least basic digital skills (33.3%), 2.2 Above basic digital skills (33.3%), 2.3 Software skills (33.3%).
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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2.1 At least basic digital skills
Notation: wid_ius_bs
Definition: People with at least basic digital skills in each of the following four dimensions: information, communication, problem solving, software for content creation. People possessing, at a minimum, the skills required to perform activities such as using e-mail, editing tools, installing new devices, etc. Further details on calculation methodology here: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/new-comprehensive-digital-skills-indicator
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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2.2 Above basic digital skills
Notation: wid_ius_abs
Definition: People with above basic digital skills in each of the following four dimensions: information, communication, problem solving, software for content creation.
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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2.3 Software skills
Notation: wid_ius_ss
Definition: People who, in addition to having used basic software features such as word processing, used advanced spreadsheet functions, created a presentation or document integrating text, pictures and tables or charts, or wrote code in a programming language.
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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3 Specialist skills and employment
Notation: wid_sse
Definition: WID Use of Internet Dimension calculated as the weighted average of the three indicators: 3.1 STEM graduates (33.3%), 3.2 ICT specialists (33.3%), 3.3 Gender pay gap (33.3%).
Time coverage: 2020 - 2020
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3.1 STEM graduates
Notation: wid_sse_stem
Definition: People with a degree in a science, technology, maths or engineering-related subject
Time coverage: 2018 - 2018
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3.2 ICT specialists
Notation: wid_sse_icts
Definition: Employed ICT specialists. Broad definition based on the ISCO-08 classification and including jobs like ICT service managers, ICT professionals, ICT technicians, ICT installers and servicers.
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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3.3 Gender pay gap
Notation: wid_sse_gpg
Definition: Gender pay gap in unadjusted form, measured as the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. The indicator has been defined as unadjusted, because it gives an overall picture of gender inequalities in terms of pay and measures a concept which is broader than the concept of equal pay for equal work. All employees working in firms with ten or more employees, without restrictions for age and hours worked, are included.
Time coverage: 2018 - 2018
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ICT Specialist
Enterprises employing ICT specialists
Notation: e_itsp2
Definition: ICT specialists are employees for whom ICT is the main job. For example, to develop, operate or maintain ICT systems or applications.
Notes: Limited comparability between 2007 and 2012 because of changes in the wording of the question. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2020
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Enterprises reporting hard-to-fill vacancies for jobs requiring ICT specialist skills
Notation: e_itspvac2
Definition: Hard-to-fill vacancies during the previous calendar year refer to a range of situations in which enterprises find it difficult to find persons with particular skills (hard-to-fill vacancies due to skills shortage).
Notes: Limited comparability between 2007 and 2012 because of changes in the wording of the question. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2020
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Persons Employed with ICT Specialist Skills (broad measure)
Notation: ict_spec3_broad
Definition: The definition of the ICT Specialists' occupations is based on the new ISCO-08 classification. It includes ICT service managers (code 133), ICT professionals (25), ICT technicians (35) and some other groups, from electronic and telecomunnications engineers (215*) up to ICT installers and servicers (7422). Where 4-digit data was not available, the share of computing graduates in the corresponding 3-digit data was estimated. See metadata fiche for a complete explanation of the methodology (Eurostat table isoc_sks_itspt)
Notes: The definition of the ICT Specialists' occupations before 2010 is based on ISCO-88. It includes codes 213, 312, 313, 1236, 2144, 2359, 3114, 7242, 7243. Due to change of the classification and the related definition, the data on ICT Specialists for 2011 and later are not fully comparable with previous years.
Time coverage: 2004 - 2016
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Enterprises where ICT functions are mainly performed by external suppliers
Notation: e_it_mext
Definition: The majority of ICT functions, out of a list of seven, are mainly performed by external suppliers and not by own employees or by ICT specialist in parent or affiliate enterprises. The functions include: maintenance of ICT infrastructures, support for office software, development and support for web solutions or business management software/systems (e.g. ERP, CRM, HR, databases), security and data protection.
Notes: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_CI_EU_EN2.
Time coverage: 2015 - 2018
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Enterprise provided training to their personnel to develop/upgrade their ICT skills
Notation: e_itt2
Definition: Detailed results are available in the Eurostat table ISOC_SKE_ITTN2.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2020
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Individuals who have obtained ICT skills through formal educational institutions
Notation: i_skedu
Definition: Individuals who have obtained ICT skills through formal educational institutions (school, college, university, etc.)
Time coverage: 2005 - 2011
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Persons employed using computers with access to the Web at work (business sector)
Notation: p_iuse
Definition: The computers (desktop, laptop, smartphones, etc.) should have access to the World Wide Web and be used at least once a week. Are included only the enterprises with 10 or more persons employed, from all manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Notes: Only the business sector is included in the scope: NACEv2 sectors from C10 to N82 (withouk financial services K) + S951.
Time coverage: 2009 - 2020
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Individuals who have written a computer program using a specialised programming language
Notation: i_cprg
Definition: Individuals who have written a computer program using a specialised programming language.
Notes: Break in series because before 2015 the activity could have been carried out ever, but since 2015 it refers to the last 12 months .
Time coverage: 2003 - 2019
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eHealth
seeking online information about health
Notation: i_ihif
Definition: Individuals using internet in the last 3 months, seeking information about health: injury, disease, nutrition, improving health, etc.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2020
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making an appointment with a practitioner via a website
Notation: i_iumapp
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for making an appointment with a practitioner via a website (e.g. of a hospital or a health care centre)
Notes: Biennial indicator
Time coverage: 2012 - 2020
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Security and Privacy
Individuals experienced financial loss
Notation: i_secfl
Definition: Individuals experienced financial loss due to fraudulent payment (credit or debit) card use OR as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming').
Time coverage: 2010 - 2015
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Individuals experienced abuse of personal information and/or other privacy violations
Notation: i_secpif1
Definition: Individuals experienced abuse of personal information sent on the Internet and/or other privacy violations (e.g. abuse of pictures, videos, personal data uploaded on community websites)
Time coverage: 2010 - 2015
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Individuals caught a virus or other computer infection resulting in loss of information or time
Notation: i_secvir1
Definition: Individuals caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time
Time coverage: 2010 - 2019
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Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying online
Notation: i_sbgood
Definition: Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use
Time coverage: 2010 - 2019
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Individuals who know that cookies can be used to trace movements of people on the internet
Notation: i_cook
Definition: Individuals who know that cookies can be used to trace movements of people on the internet
Time coverage: 2015 - 2016
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Individuals using anti-tracking software
Notation: i_atsw
Definition: Individuals using anti-tracking software
Time coverage: 2016 - 2016
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Individuals not allowing use of personal information for advertising
Notation: i_piacadv
Definition: Individuals not allowing use of personal information for advertising
Time coverage: 2016 - 2016
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Enterprises advertising online based on the geolocation of internet users
Notation: e_ads_loc
Definition: Pay to advertise on the internet, based on the geolocation of internet users
Time coverage: 2016 - 2018
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Enterprises tracking internet users for targeted advertising
Notation: e_ads_trk
Definition: Pay to advertise on the internet, based on the tracking of internet users' past activities or profile
Time coverage: 2016 - 2018
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Enterprises with a formally defined ICT security policy
Notation: e_secpol1
Time coverage: 2010 - 2015
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ICT sector
Export of ICT goods and services
Notation: ict_exp
Definition: ICT goods include: Computers and peripheral equipment, Communication equipment, Consumer electronic equipment, Electronic components and Miscellaneous. ICT services include: Communications services, Computer and information services. The value of exports cover both intra- and extra- EU.
Notes: The HS classifications used over time (HS1997, HS2002, HS2007) are bridged using the method described in the OECD document DSTI/ICCP/IIS(2010)5.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2011
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Import of ICT goods and services
Notation: ict_imp
Definition: ICT goods include: Computers and peripheral equipment, Communication equipment, Consumer electronic equipment, Electronic components and Miscellaneous. ICT services include: Communications services, Computer and information services. The value of import cover both intra- and extra- EU.
Notes: The HS classifications used over time (HS1997, HS2002, HS2007) are bridged using the method described in the OECD document DSTI/ICCP/IIS(2010)5.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2011
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Employment of the ICT sector
Notation: employment_ict
Definition: Number of persons employed. In the System of National Accounts (SNA) this is defined as all persons, both employees and self-employed, engaged in some productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the SNA and that is undertaken by a resident institutional unit.
Time coverage: 2006 - 2014
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Value added of the ICT sector
Notation: val_add_ict
Definition: Value added. In the System of National Accounts it is defined as the value of output less the value of intermediate consumption; it is a measure of the contribution to GDP made by an individual producer, industry or sector.
Time coverage: 2006 - 2014
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Business R&D expenditure of the ICT sector
Notation: bs_rd_expen_ict
Definition: Intramural expenditures on R&D performed within business enterprise sector during a specific period, whatever the source of funds (Frascati Manual).
Time coverage: 2006 - 2014
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Labour productivity of the ICT sector (per person)
Notation: labour_prod_ict
Definition: Is defined as value added per unit of labour input (persons employed).
Time coverage: 2006 - 2014
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EU Research and Development Programs
GBAORD - Government budget appropriations or outlays for research and development
Notation: gbaord
Definition: GBAORD include all appropriations (government spending) given to R&D in central (or federal) government budgets. Provincial (or State) government posts are only included if the contribution is significant. Local government funds are excluded
Notes: From 2006 onwards figures were revised and updated by PREDICT 2 project
Time coverage: 2006 - 2014
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Public ICT R&D spending (GBAORD in the field of ICT)
Notation: gbaord_ict
Definition: Estimate of the ICT share in existing disaggregated GBAORD data, based on the assumption that the share of research in the ICT field in GBAORD expenditure is proportional to the share of ICT specialists in the R&D labour cost. Methodology developped and implemented by JRC-IPTS.
Notes: From 2006 onwards figures were revised and updated by PREDICT 2 project
Time coverage: 2006 - 2013
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Total EC funding to participants in H2020 ICT projects
Notation: h2020_ec_funding
Definition: Value of European Commission funding committed through grant agreements signed, during the reference year, with participants in ICT research projects under Horizon 2020 (LEIT ICT, Excellent Science, Societal Challenges 1, 6 and 7). Projects under negotiation are not included.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
Total cost of H2020 ICT projects
Notation: h2020_totcost
Definition: Value of the total cost of the ICT research projects for which a grant agreement was signed in the reference year, under the Horizon 2020 LEIT ICT, Excellent Science, Societal Challenges 1, 6 and 7). Total cost of the project is the sum of participants' total costs.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
H2020 effective cofinancing rate
Notation: h2020_cofin
Definition: The cofinancing rate is the % of projects total costs which are covered by EC funding grants.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
Total number of participations in H2020 ICT projects
Notation: h2020_particip
Definition: Each project has multiple partners participating and each partner can participate in multiple projects. For each participation there could be an EC funding (some participations do not receive EC funding).
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
Average EC funding per participation in H2020 ICT projects
Notation: h2020ict_afxp
Definition: EC funding is the funding committed by the European Commission through grant agreements signed during the reference year. The indicator measures the average EC funding attributed to each partner participation in a specific project.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
Number of distinct organisations participating in H2020 ICT projects
Notation: h2020_organisations
Definition: Organisations participating in H2020 ICT projects during the reference year.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
Number of distinct organisations participating in H2020 ICT projects for the first time
Notation: h2020_newentry
Definition: Organisations participating for the first time in H2020 ICT calls, and which have not participated in FP7 ICT calls during 2007-2013 period.
Time coverage: 2014 - 2015
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Source: CORDA
EC funding to participants in FP7-ICT projects
Notation: fp7ict_ec_funding
Definition: Value of European Commission funding committed through grant agreements signed, during the reference year, with participants in ICT research projects under the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Projects under negotiation are not included.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Total cost of FP7-ICT projects
Notation: fp7ict_totcost
Definition: Value of the total cost of the ICT research projects for which a grant agreement was signed in the reference year, under the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Total cost of the project is the sum of participants' total costs.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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FP7 EC effective cofinancing rate
Notation: fp7ict_cofin
Definition: The cofinancing rate is the % of projects total costs which are covered by EC funding grants. Figures include all partners and third parties (as subcontractors).
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Total number of participations in FP7-ICT projects
Notation: fp7ict_particip
Definition: Each project has multiple partners participating and each partner can participate in multiple projects. For each participation there could be an EC funding (some participations do not receive EC funding). Third parties are included as partners, receiveing or not EU funding.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Average EC funding per participation in FP7-ICT projects
Notation: fp7ict_afxp
Definition: EC funding is the funding committed by the European Commission through grant agreements signed during the reference year. The indicator measure the average EC funding attributed to each partner participation in a specific project.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Number of distinct organisations participating in FP7-ICT projects for the first time
Notation: fp7ict_newentry
Definition: The first call of FP7 ICT was in 2007 and all participants are considered as new ones. For each of the following years are counted only the organisations participating for the first time in FP7 ICT calls.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Number of distinct organisations participating in FP7-ICT projects
Notation: fp7ict_organisations
Definition: Organisations participating in FP7 ICT calls for research projects (Cooperation and Capacities and e-infrastructures programs) during the reference year.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Background variables
Total population
Notation: population
Definition: Total population estimate 1st of January of the same year (Eurostat table demo_pjan)
Time coverage: 2000 - 2015
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GDP - Gross domestic product at market prices
Notation: gdp
Definition: Eurostat estimation of GDP and main components - Current prices [nama_gdp_c]
Time coverage: 2000 - 2015
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Number of private Households
Notation: households
Definition: Number of private households (Eurostat table lfst_hhnhwhtc)
Time coverage: 2005 - 2014
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Discontinued indicators
Enterprises that share internally electronic information on sales/purchases
Notation: e_sisorp
Definition: Information on sales/purchases is shared electronically and automatically with the software used for any internal function as: the management of inventory levels, the accounting system, the production management or the distribution management.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2012
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Enterprises exchanging business documents suitable for automatic processing
Notation: e_ade
Definition: The indicator refers to sending/receiving of messages (orders, invoices, payment transactions, transport documents, tax declarations, etc.) to/from other enterprises, public authorities or financial institutions in an agreed or standard format (as EDIFACT, XML, etc) which allows their automatic processing without the individual message being manually typed.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2008 - 2012
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Enterprises sending or receiving e-invoices in a format suitable for automatic processing
Notation: e_inv
Definition: The indicator refers to sending/receiving invoices in an agreed standard format (as EDIFACT, XML, etc) which allows their automatic processing, without the individual message being manually typed
Notes: Important break in series due to a more detailed question since 2011. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2007 - 2013
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Enterprises using any computer network for purchases (at least 1%)
Notation: e_ebuy
Definition: The purchases realised, during the previous calendar year, via any computer networks should represent at least 1% of the total purchases value (in monetary terms, excluding VAT). Computer networks include websites, EDI-type systems and other means of electronic data transfer, excluding manually typed e-mails.
Notes: Since 2011 the indicator is optional, so EU27 estimates cover less countries and are not comparable with previous years. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2018
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Individuals who have created a Web page
Notation: i_cweb
Definition: The activity could have been carried out ever. Only those having ever used the internet were proposed the question.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2013
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Individuals with medium or high computer skills (3 or more of 6 computer activities)
Notation: i_csk_ge_me
Definition: The indicator counts individuals having ever carried out at least 3 of the following 6 activities: coping or moving a file or folder, using copy and paste tools, using basic arithmetic formula in a spreadsheet, compressing (or zipping) files, connecting and installing new devices, writing a computer program using a specialised programming language. Only those having ever used a computer were proposed the question.
Time coverage: 2005 - 2014
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Individuals with medium or high internet skills (3 or more of 6 internet activities)
Notation: i_isk_ge_me
Definition: The indicator counts individuals having ever carried out at least 3 of the following 6 activities: using a search engine to find information, sending e-mails with attached files, posting messages to chatrooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum, using the internet to make telephone calls, using peer-to-peer file sharing for exchanging movies or music, creating a webpage. Only those having ever used the internet were proposed the question.
Time coverage: 2005 - 2013
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Persons Employed with ICT Specialist Skills
Notation: ict_specialists
Definition: The definition of the ICT Specialists' occupations is based on the new ISCO-08 classification. It includes ICT service managers (code 133), ICT professionals (25), ICT technicians (35) and ICT installers and servicers (7422).
Notes: New ISCO-08 classification of occupations is used from 2011 reference period, replacing the former ISCO-88. Due to change of the classification and the related definition, the data on ICT Specialists for 2011 and later are not fully comparable with previous years.
Time coverage: 2000 - 2013
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Fixed broadband coverage (2005-2010)
Notation: bb_fcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator, defined as the percentage of total/rural population living in areas served by fixed broadband: either DSL or cable modem networks.
Notes: Indicator collected until 2010. Then replaced with two different coverage indicators, for standard broadband and NGA respectively.
Time coverage: 2005 - 2010
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3G coverage (2005-2010)
Notation: mbb_3gcov
Definition: Coverage is a supply indicator defined as the percentage of population living in areas covered by 3G - third generation mobile networks.
Notes: Indicator collected until 2010. Then replaced with a more specific one on advanced 3G mobile broadband (HSPA).
Time coverage: 2008 - 2010
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Average Revenue per Minute in Retail Mobile Voice Communications
Notation: mob_arpm
Definition: Total voice related retail revenues divided by total voice minutes
Time coverage: 2010 - 2011
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Basic public services for citizens, which are fully available online
Notation: foa_cit
Definition: Percentage of public services for citizens out of a basket of 12 basic services (income taxes, job search, social security benefits, personal documents, car registration, building permissions, declaration to police, public libraries, certificates, enrolment in higher education, announcement of moving, health-related services) for which the entire procedure can be completed online
Notes: Collected until 2010.
Time coverage: 2001 - 2010
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Basic public services for enterprises, which are fully available online
Notation: foa_ent
Definition: Percentage of public services for enterprises out of a basket of 8 basic services (social contributions, corporate tax, VAT, company registration, statistical data, customs declaration, environment-related permits, public procurement) for which the entire procedure can be completed online
Notes: Collected until 2010.
Time coverage: 2001 - 2010
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User Centricity Score of eGovernment services
Notation: user_centric_egov
Definition: The User centricity score indicates to what extent (information about) a service is provided online and how usable it is (e.g., if support, help and feedback functionality exist online), as well as quality assessments by researchers on the service's ease and speed of use.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2013
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Transparency Score of eGovernment Services
Notation: transparent_egov
Definition: The Transparency score indicates to what extent eGovernment services are transparent. It assesses three aspects of transparency: to what extent public authorities are transparent regarding their own responsibilities and performance, to what extent they are transparent regarding the process of service delivery, and to what extent they are transparent regarding the personal data involved in service delivery.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2013
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interacting online with public authorities, last 3 months
Notation: i_iugov
Definition: Individuals have used Internet, in the last 3 months, for interaction with public authorities. It includes obtaining information from public authorities web sites, downloading official forms and sending filled in forms.
Time coverage: 2002 - 2010
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sending filled forms to public authorities, over the internet, last 3 months
Notation: i_igovrt
Notes: Indicator collected until 2010.
Time coverage: 2002 - 2010
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Enterprises interacting online with public authorities
Notation: e_igov
Definition: Use of internet for interaction with public authorities, in the last calendar year before the survey, includes: obtaining information or forms from websites, returning filled in forms, following administrative procedures completely electronically or offering products in public authorities' electronic procurement sustems (eTendering).
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed, all manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Break in series in 2011 and 2012 because the structure of the question has changed. Breaks in series because until 2008 sectors follow economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2013
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Enterprises returning filled in forms to public authorities, over the internet
Notation: e_igovrt
Definition: Activity carried out over the internet, in the last calendar year before the survey.
Notes: Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed. Break in series in 2011 and 2012 because the question has changed. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector. Breaks in series because until 2008 economic activities according to NACE Rev 1.1 and from 2009 data are based on NACE Rev.2. Since Since 2010 data include also sector S 95.1-Repair of computers and communication equipment.
Time coverage: 2003 - 2013
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Enterprises submitting a proposal in a public electronic tender system (eProcurement)
Notation: e_igov2pr
Definition: Tender proposals should have been submitted in the system itself and not by email, in the last calendar year before the survey.
Notes: Data from previous years are not comparable because the structure of the question has changed. Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed, carrying out this activity over the internet in the last calendar year before the survey. All manufacturing and service sectors, excluding the financial sector.
Time coverage: 2011 - 2013
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wid_ui_ps
Notation: wid_ui_ps
Time coverage: 2019 - 2019
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e_itspvac
Notation: e_itspvac
Time coverage: 2007 - 2007
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e_itsp
Notation: e_itsp
Time coverage: 2007 - 2007
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