The e-Government Benchmark framework corresponds with the key policy priorities in the e-government Action Plan and the Tallinn Declaration and brings insights on the state-of play of e-government in Europe. The measurement evaluates the maturity of online public services in terms of User centricity, Transparency, and use of Key enablers. It also brings the dimension of Cross-border service delivery, which is a truly European metric. Various indicators allow the comparison over the time and across countries. Over the years, the number of countries participating in the e-government benchmark has been increased. The list of countries currently includes the European Union Member States, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, Republic of Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey as well as Albania and North Macedonia.

The following table provides methodological information about the source, the scope and the definition of each indicator. For more details, click on the links in the table or explore the whole database.

Indicator Information
eGovernment
1 User Centricity
Notation: e_gov_1_ucg
Definition: The extent to which (information about) a public service is provided online, how the online journey is supported and if public websites are mobile friendly.
Notes: Composite indicator: (2016-2017) weighted average of Online availability (67%), Usability (22%) and Mobile Friendliness (11%). (2012-2015) weighted average of Online availability (67%), Usability (17%), Ease of Use (8%) and Speed of Use (8%) Break in series in 2016 (no data displayed for breakdown:Total 2016).
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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2 Transparency
Notation: e_gov_2_tg
Definition: The extent to which governments are transparent with regard to: a) the process of public service delivery b) their own responsibilities and performance c) the personal data involved in service delivery This top-level benchmark evaluates the transparency of government authorities’ operations, service delivery procedures as well as with regard to the consultation of personal data by public administrations.
Notes: Composite indicator: simple average of (Transparency) Service Delivery, Public Organisations and Personal Data
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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3 Citizen Mobility
Notation: e_gov_3_cm
Definition: The extent to which public services that are aimed at foreign citizens are available online, usable, and implement eID and eDocument capabilities
Notes: Composite indicator: (2016-2017) weighted average of (Citizen Mobility) Online Availability (50%), Usability (25%), eID Cross Borders (12%) and eDocuments Cross Borders (12%). (2012-2015) weighted average of (Citizen Mobility) Online Availability (67%), Usability (17%), Ease of Use (8%) and Speed of Use (8%) Break in series in 2016 (no data displayed for breakdown:Total 2016).
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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4 Business Mobility
Notation: e_gov_4_bm
Definition: The extent to which public services that are aimed at foreign businesses are available online, usable, and implement eID and eDocument capabilities
Notes: Composite indicator: (2016-2017) weighted average of (Business Mobility) Online Availability (50%), Usability (25%), eID Cross Borders (12%) and eDocuments Cross Borders (12%). (2012-2015) weighted average of (Business Mobility) Online Availability (67%), Usability (17%), Ease of Use (8%) and Speed of Use (8%) Break in series in 2016 (no data displayed for breakdown:Total 2016).
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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5 Key Enablers
Notation: e_gov_5_ke
Definition: The extent to which technical pre-conditions for eGovernment service provision are used. The key enablers used for measuring the quality of the services to businesses and citizens are: a) Electronic Identification (eID) b) Electronic Documents (eDocuments) c) Authentic Sources d) Digital Post e) eSafe (now discontinued) f) Single Sign On (SSO) (now discontinued)
Notes: Composite indicator: (2016-2017) simple average of eID, eDocuments, Authentic Sources and Digital Post. (2012-2015) simple average of eID, eDocuments, Authentic Sources, eSafe and Single Sign On. Break in series in 2016 as the eSafe and Single Sign On are discontinued and Digital Post is added.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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1a User Centricity - Online availability
Notation: e_gov_1a_ucg_oa
Definition: The extent to which a Public Service or information concerning the public service is provided online, and via a portal.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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1b User Centricity - Usability
Notation: e_gov_1b_ucg_us
Definition: Indicates if support, help and (interactive) feedback functionalities for the online public service are available.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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1c User Centricity - Mobile Friendliness
Notation: e_gov_1c_ucg_mf
Definition: The ability to provide public services through a mobile-friendly interface; an interface that is ‘adapted’ to the mobile device. The data collection for this indicator is done via an automated tool.
Notes: The new key enabler “Mobile Friendliness” was introduced in 2016. Mobile friendliness was also measured in 2014 and 2015 as proof-of-concept indicator. It was not part of the calculation of the User Centricity Benchmark in those years, but presented as separate index. In 2016, mobile friendliness of both individual services’ websites as well as generic portals is integrated as a component of the Online Usability and User Centricity composite indicators.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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1d User Centricity - Ease of Use
Notation: e_gov_1d_ucg_eu
Definition: Quality assessment by researchers indicating how intuitively and smoothly the online process steps for obtaining a public service can be completed. It assesses the extent to which the user achieved his/her goal, understood what he/she was supposed to do for obtaining the service, he/she found the succession of the process steps logical and he/she was actively engaged to improve the service.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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1e User Centricity - Speed of Use
Notation: e_gov_1e_ucg_su
Definition: Quality assessment researchers indicating if the online process steps for obtaining a public service could be completed within reasonable amount of time. It assesses the extent to which citizens or businesses are able to submit information to the authority (or information was pre-filled), the time needed to obtain the service and the extent to which the services were structured efficiently.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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2a Transparency - Service delivery
Notation: e_gov_2a_tg_sd
Definition: The extent to which public administrations inform users about the public service itself, setting expectations on timeliness, process and delivery for citizens and entrepreneurs from the moment a user request a service until the service is delivered.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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2b Transparency - Public organisations
Notation: e_gov_2b_tg_po
Definition: The extent to which public administrations publish information about their organisations (e.g. finance, organisational structure and responsibilities), and about their activities (e.g. the decision-making processes and regulations).
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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2c Transparency - Personal data
Notation: e_gov_2c_tg_pd
Definition: The extent to which governments proactively inform users about how, when, and by whom their personal data is being processed
Notes: In 2016, an additional question was added to the questionnaire for this indicator.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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3a Citizen Mobility - Online availability
Notation: e_gov_3a_cm_oa
Definition: The extent to which a public service (or information concerning the service) aimed at foreign citizens is available online.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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3b Citizen Mobility - Usability
Notation: e_gov_3b_cm_us
Definition: Online support and help features on services aimed at foreign citizens.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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3c Citizen Mobility - eID Cross Borders
Notation: e_gov_3c_cm_eidcb
Definition: The possibility of using a foreign eID for accessing citizen services.
Notes: New indicator, introduced in 2016.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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3d Citizen Mobility - eDocuments Cross Borders
Notation: e_gov_3d_cm_edoccb
Definition: The possibility of sending/receiving eDocuments for a foreigner using citizen services
Notes: New indicator, introduced in 2016.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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3e Citizen Mobility - Ease of Use
Notation: e_gov_3e_cm_eu
Definition: Quality assessment by researchers indicating how intuitively and smoothly the online process steps for obtaining a public service can be completed by a foreign citizen. It assesses the extent to which the user achieved his/her goal, understood what he/she was supposed to do for obtaining the service, he/she found the succession of the process steps logical and he/she was actively engaged to improve the service.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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3f Citizen Mobility - Speed of Use
Notation: e_gov_3f_cm_su
Definition: Quality assessment researchers indicating if the online process steps for obtaining a public service could be completed within reasonable amount of time by a foreign citizen. It assesses the extent to which (foreign) citizens are able to submit information to the authority (or information was pre-filled), the time needed to obtain the service and the extent to which the services were structured efficiently.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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4a Business Mobility - Online availability
Notation: e_gov_4a_bm_oa
Definition: The extent to which a public service (or information concerning the service) aimed at foreign businesses is available online.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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4b Business Mobility - Usability
Notation: e_gov_4b_bm_us
Definition: Online support and help features on services aimed at foreign businesses.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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4c Business Mobility - eID Cross Borders
Notation: e_gov_4c_bm_eidcb
Definition: The possibility of using a foreign eID for accessing business services.
Notes: New indicator, introduced in 2016.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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4d Business Mobility - eDocuments Cross Borders
Notation: e_gov_4d_bm_edoccb
Definition: The possibility of sending/receiving eDocuments for a foreigner using business services
Notes: New indicator, introduced in 2016.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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4e Business Mobility - Ease of Use
Notation: e_gov_4e_bm_eu
Definition: Quality assessment by researchers indicating how intuitively and smoothly the online process steps for obtaining a public service can be completed by a foreign business. It assesses the extent to which the user achieved his/her goal, understood what he/she was supposed to do for obtaining the service, he/she found the succession of the process steps logical and he/she was actively engaged to improve the service.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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4f Business Mobility - Speed of Use
Notation: e_gov_4f_bm_su
Definition: Quality assessment researchers indicating if the online process steps for obtaining a public service could be completed within reasonable amount of time by a foreign business. It assesses the extent to which (foreign) businesses are able to submit information to the authority (or information was pre-filled), the time needed to obtain the service and the extent to which the services were structured efficiently.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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5a Key Enablers - eID
Notation: e_gov_5a_ke_eid
Definition: Electronic Identification (eID) is a government-issued document for online identification, and authentication.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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5b Key Enablers - eDocuments
Notation: e_gov_5b_ke_edoc
Definition: A document which has been authenticated by its issuer using any means recognised under applicable national law, specifically through the use of electronic signatures, e.g. not a regular pdf or word document.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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5c Key Enablers - Authentic sources
Notation: e_gov_5c_ke_as
Definition: Authentic Sources are base registries used by governments to automatically validate or fetch data relating to citizens or businesses.
Time coverage: 2012 - 2019
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5d Key Enablers - Digital Post
Notation: e_gov_5d_ke_dp
Definition: Assesses whether public authorities allow citizens to receive communications digitally only, and hence reducing paper mailings. Digital Post refers to the possibility that governments communicate electronically-only with citizens or entrepreneurs through e.g. personal mailboxes or other digital post solutions.
Notes: New indicator, introduced in 2016.
Time coverage: 2016 - 2019
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5e Key Enablers - eSafe
Notation: e_gov_5e_ke_esafe
Definition: A virtual repository for storing, administering and sharing personal electronic data and documents. It can be used to securely store personal documents in public service processes.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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5f Key Enablers - Single Sign On (SSO)
Notation: e_gov_5f_ke_sso
Definition: A functionality that allows users to get access to multiple websites without the need to log in multiple times.
Notes: This indicator has been discontinued starting from 2016
Time coverage: 2012 - 2015
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